The Native Tribes About the East Texas Missions. 249
THE NATIVE TRIBES ABOUT THE EAST TEXAS
I-IERBERT E. BOLTON.
The history of the Spanish regime in the Southwest is very
largely the history of an Indian policy in its military, political,
and religious phases, and to understand it aright it is manifestly
necessary to know something of the people over whom the Spaniards
extended their authority and upon whom they tried to impose their
faith and their civilization.
The purpose of this paper is to furnish a partial introduction
to the early history of the Spaniards in eastern Texas-the scene
of their first systematic activities between the Mississippi and the
upper Rio Grande-by presenting some of the main features of
the organization of the compact group of tribes living in the upper
Neches and the Angelina River valleys, the first and the most
important group with which they came into intimate contact.
These tribes furnished the early field of labor especially for the
Franciscans of the College of Santa Cruz de Quer6taro, who worked
for fifteen years in the region and founded in it five missions,
while one was founded there and maintained for more than half a
century by the College of Nuestra Sefiora de Guadalupe de Zaca-
tecas. It is hoped that this paper will throw new light on the all
too obscure history of these interesting establishments, particularly
with respect to their locations.'
Theh Names "Texas" and "Hasinai."
The tribes in question commonly have been called the Texas,
but more properly the Hasinai. Concerning the meaning and
1The authoritative presentation of the general history of the beginnings
of these establishments is that contained in the excellent articles by Dr.
R. C. Clark, published in this journal, Vol. V, 171-205, and Vol. VI, 1-26.
In their bearings upon Indian organization and tribal names they are
marred to some extent by the use of corrupt copies of the sources instead
of the originals, as will be seen by comparing them with what follows. It
is but fair to state that in the revision and extension of these articles,
about to appear as a Bulletin of the University of Texas, Mr. Clark has
corrected some of the errors.
For facts concerning the individual tribes mentioned in the course of
this article, see the HcandbooL of American Indians, edited by F. W.
Hodge (Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology, No. 30, Part I,
1907; Part II in press).
Texas State Historical Association. The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, Volume 11, July 1907 - April, 1908. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101045/. Accessed December 19, 2014.