Retreat of the Spaniards from New Mexico in 1680 137
THE RETREAT OF THE SPANIARDS FROM NEW MEX-
ICO IN 1680, AND THE BEGINNINGS OF EL PASO
CHARLES WILSON HACKETT
In a former paper, published in THE QUARTERLY in October,
1911, an account was given of the revolt of the Pueblo In-
dians of New Mexico in 1680, and of the defensive efforts of
the Spaniards immediately following the revolt. That paper
ended with the decision of the two divisions of refugees, at Santa
F6 and Isleta, to abandon the province. It is now proposed to
give a narrative of their retreat down the Rio Grande, and of
their subsequent settlement at Paso del Norte, subjects on which
practically nothing has been written heretofore.' The present
paper has been based largely on the sources described in the in-
troduction to the former. Several additional original documents,
however, have been encountered in the Bancroft Collection, and
have been utilized here. A large number of older secondary
works, in which the Bancroft Collection is especially rich, have
also been used. Without essentially changing the story of the
revolt as I have previously written it, this new material will sup-
plement it and throw additional light on certain points not clear
in that narrative.
I. THE RETREAT OF GARCIA'S DIVISION TO FRAY CRISTOBAL
As has been pointed out in the account of the revolt, it was on
August 14 that the Spanish refugees in Isleta abandoned that
pueblo and began their long and perilous journey toward Mexico.
The condition of these once prosperous settlers of Rio Abajo was
such, however, that a hasty retreat was impossible. Most of the
1Even Escalante, who wrote an authoritative, though brief account of
the revolt from the archives of Santa F6, has little to say concerning
the retreat down the Rio del Norte, or concerning the events attending
the settlement ,of the Spaniards at El Paso.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, July 1912 - April, 1913. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101058/. Accessed May 24, 2013.