Texas in 1820
TEXAS IN 1820
TRANSLATED BY MATTIE AUSTIN HATCHER
I. REPORT ON THE BARBAROUS INDIANS OF THE PROVINCE OF
BY JUAN ANTONIO IPADILLA
These Indians, who are scattered over the immense territory
lying between the 27th and 45th degrees north latitude and from
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico to the Province of New Mexico,
are known by different names. In obedience to superior orders,
I describe their customs, habits, and modes of life, giving a con-
cise statement of each one of the best known tribes, to whom is
given the title of nations; and, for greater clearness, I will divide
them into friendly and hostile groups.
The friendly nations are the Cad6, or Cadodachos, Yuganis,
Nacogdochitos, Aizes, Vidaizes, Alibam6, Conchat6, Chat6, Chata
Orcoquisac, Nacazil, Cocos, Sn. Pedro, Texas, Quichas, and
In this tribe, there is a leader or chief called a Gran Cad6,
whom nearly all the friendly nations recognize as a superior.
This office is usually hereditary, and holds its titles or commis-
sions con medalla ever since the time when Louisiana was a Span-
ish possession. Considering the fact that they are heathens, the
moral customs of these natives are good, since they are not am-
bitious like the Comanches nor deceitful like the Lipanes. They
live by farming and hunting. From the former industry they
obtain large quantities of corn, beans, potatoes, and other vege-
tables which are sufficient for their families; and from the lat-
ter they obtain a large supply of furs from the bear, the deer, the
beaver, the otter, and other animals. These they carry to Natchi-
toches and exchange for carbines, munitions, merchandise, tobacco,
and firewater, of which they are very fond. Their houses are of
'From the Austin Papers, University of Texas.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101075/. Accessed June 19, 2013.