Texas in 1890
All these tribes, who live in the wooded region which lies be-
tween the Trinity river and the frontier of the United State,
preserve reciprocally an inviolable peace and a perfect harmony.
They, however, are strongly built, well developed, brave, and vig-
orous. They resist fatigue and the extremes of that changeable
climate at all seasons; for they are accustomed to it. They have
the particular distinction of not having joined the faction of the
traitor Bernardo Guti6rrez, when, at the head of the Anglo-
Americans and accursed Spaniards, he invaded the Province of
Texas, having previously sent Spanish and French emissaries
among them; that is, with the exception of the Conchat6 who,
with one hundred Indians of this nation, aided the traitors to
carry the war in Bahia del Espiritu Santo and later at the battle
of Rosillo; but when Gutierrez's army had taken the plaza of
Bexar and had beheaded the Spanish leaders and other officials,
the Conchat6 retired to their pueblos.
The ordinary dress of these nations is deer skins which they
themselves tan. They also wear shirts of chintz or flowered goods.
Their wives dress in the same way. Some of them have married
foreignesrs. They are not so dirty nor so ugly. They might
even pass as handsome, if they should be given a good and care-
ful education-particulary the Cad6.
The hostile tribes are the Comanches, the Lipan, -the Tancahues,
the Tahuayases, the Tahuacanos, and the Aguajes. They are scat-
tered over the plains which lie between the neighborhood of New
Mexico and the Province of Texas. The first three are wander-
ing tribes, and the others live in fixed settlements on the rivers
of Brazos de Dios and Colorado de Natchitoches. In their cus-
toms, they are very different from the tribes on the frontier; al-
though, like the Indians, they farm and hunt.
The Comanches, who are the most numerous and who cover the
greater part of that vast region toward the north, are treacher-
ous, revengeful, sly, untrustworthy, ferocious, and cruel, when
victorious; and cowardly and low, when conquered. They are in-
clined towards rapine and murder of their fellow-beings, spar-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 23, July 1919 - April, 1920. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101075/. Accessed July 3, 2015.