The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 28, July 1924 - April, 1925

The Federal Indian Policy in Texas

THE FEDERAL INDIAN POLICY IN TEXAS
1845-1860"*
LENA CLARA KOCH
THE INDIANS IN TEXAS AT THE TIME OF ANNEXATION
1. Tribes and Population
Wild, or Prairie, Indians.-There were two types of Indians in
Texas at the time of annexation and during the early era of the
state. These were the wild Indians, commonly called prairie In-
dians, and the agricultural Indians, who were somewhat more set-
tled. Of the prairie Indians, there were four main divisions and
three lesser ones.
Shoshonris.-The Comanches were one of the southern tribes of
the Shoshonean stock.' There were two great branches of the
Comanches, the northern branch, which did not belong to Texas
at all, and the southern branch, which were the most numerous In-
*A thesis presented to the faculty of the graduate school of the Uni-
versity of Texas for the degree of Master of Arts, August, 1922.
I wish to express my appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Eugene Camp-
bell Barker for his generous aid and encouragement in the preparation of
this paper, and to Mr. E. W. Winkler and Mrs. Mattie Austin Hatcher
for their help in locating material.
L. C. K.
1Hodge, A Handbook of American Indians, I, 327. For convenience the
principal tribes in Texas can be classified as follows:
A. Wild, or Prairie, Indians
I. Shoshonis
1. Comanches
a. Northern Group
b. Southern Group
II. Kiowas
III. Tonkawas
IV. Athapascans
1. Northern Group
2. Southern Group
a. Apaches
(1) Lipans
(2) Kiowa Apaches
(3) Mescaleros
B. Agricultural Tribes
I. Caddoes
1. Northern Wichitas
2. Southern Wichitas
a. Caddoes

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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 28, July 1924 - April, 1925. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101087/. Accessed August 20, 2014.