Committee on Texan Declaration of Independence
States Army,s08 and not a brother, as has been erroneously stated
by some writers.'09 He was destined to play an active part in the
affairs of Mexican territory in the southwest, and of the Texas
revolution and organization of the Republic of Texas.
When Lieutenant Edmund Pendleton Gaines was ordered to
make a survey of the waterways from Nashville to New Orleans in
1803, James accompanied him.110 In 1805, he went to Nacog-
doches and decided to establish a mercantile business, and in 1809
added to his operations a ferry on the Sabine River,11 in what
later became Shelby County, and where the Nachitoches-San An-
tonio road crossed the Sabine. It may be surmised that Gaines
continued to operate his ferry until 1813, when he joined the fili-
bustering expedition of Gutierrez. When the filibuster forces,
under the command of Elisondo, were defeated by the Spanish
forces at San Antonio, Gaines returned home and resumed busi-
ness.112 But in 1819, he joined Dr. Long's filibustering forces and
saw his hopes for a change in government blasted by Dr. Long's
In 1821, Gaines was still operating his ferry and store on the
Sabine. A bill from Gaines to Andrew Robertson "for services
and supplies," "June 1st-October 10th," 1821, enumerates such
items as flour, salt, whiskey, suppers, and "ferriage at sundry
times.""'4 A statement to one customer dated October 10, was
typical of the nature of the business of this early tavern keeper on
iosR. T. Green, Genealogioal and Historical notes on Culpeper County,
Va. (Culpeper, 1900), 96-98; Zella Armstrong, Notable Southern Fam-
ilies, 86, 90, 97.
'0Fulmore, The History and Geography of Texas As Told by County
Names, 75; Dixon, The Men Who Made Texas Free, 303.
11oFulmore, The History and Geography of Texas As Told By County
11L. J. Wortham, A History of Texas, 222-223, suggests that Gaines
put the ferry in operation with the probable expectation of benefiting
from the smuggling trade, which was being carried on between the neutral
ground and Spanish Texas.
IFulmore, The History and Geography of Texas As Told By County
Names, 76. Dixon, The Men Who Made Texas Free, 304.
11E. 1C. Barker (ed.), The Austin Papers, I, 416, Annual Report of
American Historical Association, 1919, II.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 31, July 1927 - April, 1928. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101088/. Accessed December 26, 2014.