The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, July 1931 - April, 1932

THE
SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY
VOL. XXXV APRIL, 1932 No. 4
The publication committee and the editors disclaim responsibility for views expressed
by contributors to THE QUAR'TERLY
SOUTHERN REFUGEES OF THE CHEROKEE NATION
ANGIE DEBO
The devastating effect of the Civil War on the five independent
Indian republics occupying what is now the state of Oklahoma is
familiar to all students of southwestern history. The present
paper represents an attempt to limit the field to a particular study
of the fate of that faction of the Cherokee tribe that sympathized
with the South.
Although a strong minority of the tribe favored the North, the
Cherokee Nation signed a treaty of alliance with the Confederacy
in the fall of 1861.1 Civil war at once broke out between the two
factions of the tribe, in which the Union Indians were overpowered
and driven into Kansas. The first invasion from the North
occurred in the spring of 18622 when a force of Kansas and Union
Indians marched into the country, captured Talequah and Fort
Gibson, and made Chief John Ross a prisoner." Dissensions among
the leaders of the expedition soon forced a retreat to Kansas, how-
ever, and it seems that most of the Southern Cherokees remained
unmolested in their homes during the winter of 1862-63.
Early in 1863 the Cherokee National Council met and repudiated
'Statutes at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate
States of America (James M. Matthews, Ed., Richmond, 1864), 391-411.
'Stand Watie to the Governor of the Creek Nation, August 9, 1863.
Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, First Series, Vol. XXII,
Part 2, p. 1105.
"Stand Warie to Cherokee National Committee and Council, July 11,
1864. Ibid., Vol. XLI, Part 2, p. 1046.

Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 35, July 1931 - April, 1932. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101092/. Accessed December 18, 2014.