Southwestern Historical Quarterly
THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION OF BAXAR, 1811
By J. VILLASANA HAGGARD
On September 16, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, curate of
Dolores, started an armed rebellion against the crown of Spain.
From the outset the revolutionary movement of Hidalgo met with
signal success. With comparative ease the insurgents captured
Guanajuato and Valladolid, and decisively defeated the royalist
army at Monte de las Cruces, near Mexico City.1
Subsequent events, however, showed that the undertaking was
premature. Lack of definite plans of attack, lack of discipline,
and dissension among the insurgent leaders soon proved detri-
mental. Early in November, Callexa, royalist Commandant of
the Tenth Brigade, defeated the forces under Hidalgo at Aculco.
This was the first of a series of defeats that overtook the fleeing
hordes of Hidalgo.
In an attempt to strengthen his cause, Hidalgo had sent agents
throughout New Spain to bolster his failing revolution. To the
region of the Rio Grande the rebel leader sent G6mez Portugal,
Godinez, Alatorre, and Huidrobo. These agents were so active
that by the latter part of October, 1810, all the settlements near
the Rio Grande were in open revolt.2
North of the Nueces, Governor Manuel de Salcedo' had learned
1Alamn, Lucas, Historia de Mdxico, Imprenta de Lara, Mexico, 1849,
2Ibid., II, p. 4.
8Don Manuel de Salcedo was appointed governor of the province of Texas
on March 13, 1807. Before his appointment, De Salcedo had been stationed
in New Orleans serving in His Majesty's army with the rank of captain of
infantry in the regiment of the Canaries. His father, Don Juan Manuel
was the governor of Louisiana. Since Don Juan Manuel was in his dotage,
however, his son usually exercised the office of governor.
On November 7, 1808, Manuel de Salcedo took the oath of office as gov-
ernor of Texas in San Antonio. On the same day Antonio Cordero, governor
of Coahuila and acting governor of Texas, turned over to him the political
administration of Texas. Nemesio Salcedo, Commandant General of the
Provincias Internas of the East and uncle of the new governor, ordered
Cordero to remain in San Antonio until after Don Manuel should complete
a tour of inspection of the province. The following month, however, Don
Bernardo Bonavia was sent to replace Cordero. The governor did not start
his tour until a year later. In October, 1810, De Salcedo was given the
military command of the province, and Don Bernardo Bonavfa was trans-
ferred to Durango, Mexico. From then on the governor was chiefly con-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 43, July 1939 - April, 1940. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101111/. Accessed December 10, 2013.