The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, July 1946 - April, 1947

THE SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
VOL. L OCTOBER, 1946 No. 2
rhe Apache ldians ih reras
FRANK D. REEVE
THE DERIVATION of the name Apache most widely cited is
that given by F. W. Hodge,' who states that it is prob-
ably from dpachu, meaning "enemy," the Zufii name for the
Navaho Indians. John P. Harrington,2 however, credits the
Spanish with picking up the name from the Yavapai term
'Axwd, duoplural 'Axwdatca, meaning Apache person. The
Apache's name for themselves is a word meaning man or people,
spelled in various ways, but, according to Harrington, preferably
Tinnedh.8
Linguistically the Apache constitute the southern branch of
the Athapaskan Indians. The time and manner of their arrival
in the Southwest is a matter of conjecture. They may have
migrated from the north either west or east of the Rocky Moun-
tains. Within the era covered by the written records of the white
man, the Apache have lived in the region extending from north of
the Arkansas River into the northern frontier states of Mexico
and from central Texas westward to central Arizona, with the
Spanish and Pueblo Indian settlements in the upper Rio Grande
Valley representing an elongated island in Apacheria.
The Apache were a nomadic people divided into many bands.
A historically accurate classification of the bands according to
name and geographical location is an impossibility because, in
all probability, more than one name has been applied to the
IFrederick Webb Hodge (ed.), Handbook of American Indians North
of Mexico (2 vols.; Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American
Ethnology, Bulletin 30 [Washington, 1907]), I, 63.
2John P. Harrington, "Southern Peripheral Athapaskawan Origins,
Divisions, and Migrations," Essays in Historical Anthropology of North
America ("Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections," C [Washington, 1940]),
512.
BR. H. Ogle, Federal Control of the Western Apaches, 1848-1886 (His-
torical Society of New Mexico, "Publications in History," [Albuquerque,
1940]), 5, n. 13; also published in New Mexico Historical Review, XIV and
XV (October, 1939, July, 1940),

Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 50, July 1946 - April, 1947. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101117/. Accessed September 1, 2015.