eroes awd Jldiams ow the areas
KENNETH W. PORTER
No state is richer than Texas in opportunities for observing
the varied relations of Negroes and Indians under fron-
tier conditions. It included almost every variety of fron-
tier settlement from the cotton plantation to the small frontier
farm and the cattle ranch. The Indians ranged from semi-civilized
and sedentary tribes, native or immigrant, such as the Caddo
and Cherokee, to such nomads as the Tonkawa, Lipan Apache,
Comanche, and Kiowa; their attitude toward the whites was gen-
erally friendly, intermittently hostile, or consistently hostile, ac-
cording to tribe and time. Relations with the more nomadic and
hostile Indians are, however, the most extensive and significant.
Indians were eliminated as an important element in Texas life
by 1881, but the period of their significance covered the times
when Texas was a part of Mexico, an independent republic, a
state of the United States, a state of the Confederacy, and a state
of the Union again, times of peace and times of war, though
these sub-divisions of time do not seem in themselves to have
been particularly important in this connection. The character-
istic state of the Texas Negroes at the beginning of the period
was slavery, at the conclusion, freedom; this break is important.
This account will not consider relations between Negroes en-
listed in the United States Army after the Civil War and the
Indians against whom they were frequently called upon to serve;
that is a story in itself.
Relations between Negroes and Indians have been given con-
siderable scattered attention by writers about Texas in the fron-
tier period, but their statements are frequently contradictory,
confusing, and probably, inaccurate. S. H. Blalack is quoted as
saying: "The Indians weren't afraid of a Negro at all. They were
afraid of a white man but they seemed to hate a Negro and would
kill him any chance they got." It should hardly be necessary to
IFlorence Fenley, Oldtimers (Uvalde, 1939), 119.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 53, July 1949 - April, 1950. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101126/. Accessed December 5, 2013.