The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 55, July 1951 - April, 1952

Book Reviews

Several mechanical errors and one misleading statement should
be mentioned. In the Bancroft citation (p. 15), "Vol. XII" should
read "Vol. IV"; "Hildegardo Galeano" (p. 26) should be "Her-
menegildo Galeana"; "1840" (p. 260) should read "1850." The
contention that the efforts of the United States and Mexico, 1851-
1861, to negotiate a treaty concerning 'Tehuantepec transit rights
were "fruitless" (p. 259) fails to consider those rights which were
granted the United States in the Gadsden Purchase Treaty of
Texas Western College
Confederate Leaders in the New South. By William B. Hesseltine.
Baton Rouge (Louisiana State University Press), 1950. Pp.
147. $2.50.
This little volume is the three lectures given as "The Walter
Lynwood Fleming Lectures in Southern History" at Louisiana
State University. The postwar careers of 585 top-ranking civil
and military leaders of the Confederacy are analyzed.
Professor Hesseltine presents convincing evidence that the
Southern Confederacy was not the creation af a slaveholding
conspiracy. The leaders had varied backgrounds; they did not
see the same issues involved in secession; they did not agree on
the ways to conduct the war; they did not even have unanimity
of opinion as to the objectives of the Confederacy.
When military defeat came and the Confederacy collapsed, the
leaders could not agree on the course to pursue. Each chose his
own course of action. A few left the country; most of them, how-
ever, remained in the South, defeated but not conquered, and
turned their talents and energy to the tasks of reconstruction
and rehabilitation. They had two obstacles to overcome: one was
the widespread economic and social ruin caused by the war, and
the other was the hatred of their victorious northern enemies.
The leaders of the Confederacy remained as leaders of the New
South. Of the 656 prominent Confederates, 585 attained position
and prestige in the New South. These 585 leaders were well
educated and possessed a rich experience for their new tasks. In
the postwar era 292 became lawyers, 193 were farmers, 66 went


Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 55, July 1951 - April, 1952. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. Accessed May 24, 2016.

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