THE SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
VOL. LXII OCTOBER, 1958 No. 2
the /ecoMstructioN Courts of rexas
JAMES R. NORVELL
ON JUNE 19, 1865, approximately two months after the
assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Major Gen-
eral Gordon Granger of the United States Army landed
in Galveston with eighteen hundred Federal troops. His first act
was to proclaim the emancipation of the Negro slaves in Texas."
All semblance of Confederate organization had vanished; Gov-
ernor Pendleton Murrah, former Governor Edward Clark, and
Generals E. Kirby Smith and John Bankhead Magruder, who
had been in command of the Confederate troops in Texas, had
fled to Mexico.2 The war which thus ended for Texas had been
fought between two sections of the United States with a com-
bined population of 31,443,000 persons, and of that number a
toll in dead and missing exceeding the total casualties of World
Wars I and II and the Korean War had been claimed by 2,261
battlefields-approximately 400,000 from the Northern Armies
and an estimated 250,000 of the Confederates. The records of the
defeated armies are far from complete," however, and some esti-
mates of the Confederate dead run much higher.4 In sheer feroc-
ity, the struggle has hardly been surpassed. A 20 per cent loss of
effectives on the field of battle is almost a certain forerunner of
iCharles William Ramsdell, Reconstruction in Texas (New York, 19go), 39; Sam
Acheson, 35,ooo Days in Texas (New York, 1938), 62.
2Louis J. Wortham, A History of Texas (5 vols.; Fort Worth, 1924), IV, 365.
8James Street, The Civil War (New York, 1953), 3.
'The Confederate Monument on the Texas Capitol grounds lists the following:
Confederate Armies-8oo,ooo, Federal Armies-2,859,132. Losses from all causes:
Confederate-437,ooo, Federal-486, 16.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/. Accessed May 5, 2015.