The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959

Southwestern Historical Quarterly

Valero, and Concepci6n followed in order.38 In Fray Ciprian's
report of 1749 San Jos6 had about 2,000 head of cattle. In 1768
Solis wrote, "This mission has from ten to twelve leagues of
ranch that is called El Atascosa, where there are about ten droves
of mares, four droves of burros, about thirty pair, and about
fifteen yoke of oxen for plowing . , and about five thousand
head of sheep and goats.""39
None of the inspectors saw fit to chronicle the methods used
in handling the cattle. Testimony in cattle suits during the latter
half of the century reveal that annual roundups took place
when the area was not terrorized by hostile Indians. In Governor
Barrios' report of 1758 San Jos6 claimed 1,500 head of "all
branded."40
Neither the settlers nor the Indians were supposed to slaughter
the animals for their hides alone; the animals were to be used
solely as a source of food. At San Jose six bulls were killed weekly
for the neophytes. Sick Indians ate lamb chops and chicken broth.
Along with ranching and farming, mission Indians worked in
shops. Father Morfi wrote concerning the San Jos6 Indians, "They
understand and apply themselves with effect in mechanical works,
and fluently perform some of the arts.""' The San Antonio mis-
sions maintained carpenter, masonry, blacksmith, cabinet-making,
and weaving shops. Contemporary inspectors found a sugar mill
and a tailor shop at one of the missions.
Women and older men busied themselves with making cloth
from the cotton and wool produced in the missions. The raw ma-
terials underwent the entire process of cleaning, combing, spin-
ping, and weaving to become textiles. In 1762 Valero had a
workshop with four looms, and two storerooms with cotton, wool,
combs, cards, and spindles. Concepci6n and Espada each had
three looms.42 Products of the looms included sayales, mantas
(shawls or light bed covering), terlingas, rebozos (head scarves),
fresadas, blankets, sack cloth, and a variety of cotton and woolen
88Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century, 99.
39Kress, "Diary of Fray Solis," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXXV, 51.
4OCastafieda, Our Catholic Heritage, IV, 13.
41Chabot, Morfi Excerpts, 64.
42Kress, "Diary of Fray Solis," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXXV, 52;
Bolton, Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century, 98.

Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 62, July 1958 - April, 1959. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101173/. Accessed December 19, 2014.