Southwestern Historical Quarterly
woman, as murder; that of another, an Irish laborer, as gambling;
and that of the third, a Prussian vinegar manufacturer, as insanity,
with the added comment "disappointed in love."36 Not all for-
eigners, however, were on the wrong side of the law; many were
not only law abiding citizens but were found as enforcers and
upholders of the law. Census records of i86o for San Antonio,
for example, show that the mayor, city marshal, deputy sheriff,
city tax collector, and district judge were all foreign born.
Illustrations of tangible contributions by foreigners to the
development of Texas towns are afforded in various primary
accounts and secondary studies of the period.7 European music,
arts, languages, and literature both enriched and flavored that of
the native Americans. The introduction of new crafts and the
improvement of old skills added appreciably to the native econ-
omy, while individuals such as Dr. Ferdinand Lindheimer and
Dr. Ferdinand Herff contributed to the scientific knowledge of
the people of Texas. Foreign born newspapermen such as Fer-
dinand Flake and Adolf Douai added to the media of communi-
cation. An Irish-born barkeeper, Dick Dowling of Houston, fig-
ured prominently in the defense of Texas during the American
Civil War. Certainly the development of Texas's principal towns
in the late ante-bellum period would have been less colorful,
less dynamic, and less variegated without the foreign influence.
3Ibid., Calhoun county, City of Indianola, 6.
87Biesele, History of German Settlements in Texas; Lonn, Foreigners in the
Confederacy, 13-23; Wittke, Refugees of Revolution, 193-194; Gilbert G. Benjamin,
The Germans in Texas (Philadelphia, 1909); Marjorie Paulus, Fifteen Years in Old
San Antonio, 1850-1865 (Master's thesis, St. Mary's University, 1939), 25-27, 57-85;
Margaret D. Bright, The Social Development of Houston, Texas, 1836-186o (Master's
thesis, University of Texas, 1940), 42-45; Earl Wesley Fornell, The Galveston Era
(Austin, 1961), 125-139.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 66, July 1962 - April, 1963. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101196/. Accessed July 7, 2015.