ROBERT C. COTNER, Editor
Exploration and Empires: The Explorer and the Scientist in the
Winning of the American West. By William H. Goetzmann.
New York (Alfred A. Knopf), 1966. Pp. xxii+648. Illustra-
tions, maps, a note on sources, index. $lo.oo.
This comprehensive coverage of the exploration of the Ameri-
can West has been divided into three parts, or periods, each
characterized by specific objectives and distinctive types of explor-
ers and exploring activity. The first period began with Lewis and
Clark and continued to 1845, during which time imperial rivalry
and international competition provided motivation even for fur
traders and mountain men. The second period, 1845-1860, was
characterized by the westward movement of those seeking eco-
nomic opportunity or a place to settle, and the explorer cooperat-
ed with their endeavors under the guise of Manifest Destiny. The
third period, lasting to the end of the nineteenth century, was an
era of scientific reconnaissance, "the Great Surveys," when men
of science re-examined the resources of the West with an eye to
its development as a region and planned for its conservation for
the entire nation.
Each of these three divisions is followed by a portfolio of
magnificent illustrations. The first, entitled "Romantic Horizon,"
concentrates on the contribution of artists who accompanied the
explorers and who had been trained in what to see. In terms of
the artistic conventions of the civilized culture of the day, they
illustrated in water-colors, oils, and mass-produced lithographs,
the exotic, the pastural, and the sublime. The second portfolio
presents "Scientific Art" whereby an attempt has been made
to depict the new scientific discoveries that could not be described
on a printed page. Some of these were such conventional devices
as maps, graphs, and charts, while others were innovative in their
incredibly detailed drawings of fossils, plants, and animals, arti-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 70, July 1966 - April, 1967. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101199/. Accessed September 20, 2014.