their stories in pictures and three-dimensional forms. Rather than
being an acquired refinement of civilization, art has been the Indian's
natural statement. Thus contemporary Indian artists continue unself-
consciously to express themselves as did their forebears. Glubok's
book documents nicely the way that Indian art evolved from life
concerns. Pictographs showed animals that furnished food and dress,
as well as symbols of the spirits. Sculpture related to familiar animals
and often was used as fetishes. Utilitarian baskets, pottery, and rugs
carried designs that told stories of tribal life and superstition. The
ever-present need for rain found expression in Pueblo Indians' ka-
chinas, or spirit rainmakers. Kachina masks and dolls were the artistic
legacy. In a simple, but accurate, way, these books can engage the
interest of young readers.
University of Maryland WALTER RUNDELL, JR.
Cattle Trails to Trenches. By Howard Green Smith. (Austin: Pem-
berton Press, 1970. Pp. 252. Illustrations, appendices. $6.95.)
In this attractive well illustrated volume Howard Green Smith,
an octogenerian and a former Texas cowboy, relates his long and
colorful life. The author grew up in the farming and ranching
country of central Texas. In 1906 at the age of eighteen Smith be-
gan his career in the saddle in the vicinity of Eden, Texas, breaking
horses for the Q-9 Cattle Company. During the next few years he
worked for various ranches in the Big Bend country of Texas and
held jobs in Oklahoma and Arkansas. Then enticed by glowing
descriptions of the Canadian prairie provinces he went north. Not
satisfied with northern Alberta the author made the difficult over-
land trek through British Columbia to Alaska.
Finding little there to hold him he returned to Canada as World
War I commenced and enlisted in the Canadian Army. After four
years and eight months of combat in the trenches of Europe, Smith
decided to marry a Texas girl and settle on a preemption in Canada.
In 1922 the poor health of his wife forced Smith to sell the ranch
he had developed in the Peace River country of Alberta and return
Certainly other retired Texas cowboys have written more readable
autobiographies. But if the reader can suffer through the first chap-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 75, July 1971 - April, 1972. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101201/. Accessed November 26, 2015.