The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 81, July 1977 - April, 1978

Southwestern Historical Quarterly

relative), five years before her death, to three institutions of her home
city: the Rochester Historical Society, the Rush Rhees Library of the Uni-
versity of Rochester, and the Rochester Museum and Science Center. Lee's
watercolor sketches, reflecting careful composition, delicate tints, and close
detail, are valuable not only from an artistic viewpoint but also as unique
documents of the frontier. From them we can get an idea of the terrain,
climate, and vegetation of the time. The human figures they contain give
us an insight into army life on the trail, as well as Indian life in the moun-
tains and on the plains.
Lee's paintings and sketches, reproduced here for the first time, along
with a biographical sketch of Lee the man, the soldier, and the artist, com-
bine in a book which is both attractive and valuable.
Eagle Pass, Texas BEN E. PINGENOT
United States-Comanche Relations: The Reservation Years. By William
T. Hagan. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, I976. Pre-
face, illustrations, epilogue, bibliography, index. Pp. vii + 336. $19-50.)
In i875 the Comanche Indians and two associated tribes--Kiowas and
Kiowa Apaches-were placed on a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma.
Within thirty years they were changed from proud, independent tribesmen
to aimless wards of the federal government. Much of the change revolved
around Quanah Parker, the mixed-blood Comanche leader, whose open
cooperation with Indian officials hastened the transformation of his people.
In the book under review, W. T. Hagan carefully examines the policies,
personalities, and pressures the Comanches encountered during their reser-
vation years. Written with balance and clarity, the work is a model study
which will inspire further probing into the totality of Indian policy.
Hagan covers three periods of United States-Comanche relations: (i)
the Medicine Lodge Treaty (1867) and the beginnings of a reservation
near Fort Sill; (2) the extended efforts to promote acculturation through
farming and education programs; and (3) the dismantling of the reser-
vation and shift to allotments in severalty. The story has many interest-
ing aspects. For example, Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, the famed In-
dian fighter; appears in the role of humanitarian, striving to reduce the
hunger on the reservation caused by a niggardly Congress. A parade of
personalities-ranchers, squaw men, attorneys-figure prominently in the
fluctuating policies affecting the Comanches. The I89os brought prosper-
ity for the Comanches: pasture payments from ranchers were high, tribal
herds increased, and Carlisle-trained graduates returned home to help their

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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 81, July 1977 - April, 1978. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101205/. Accessed November 28, 2014.