the early years of this century and continuing to the present day. The
authors conclude, as have several other scholars, that the impoverished
illegal Mexicans tend to displace Chicano workers and to undermine
working conditions. The economic disadvantages of Chicanos are ex-
plained further in terms of their own values, discrimination, and
limited educational opportunity.
Most of this book achieves a high level of scholarship and objectivity.
However, the authors are not observers only. They forthrightly admit
their commitment to improving the economic status of Mexican-
Americans and they propose several policies designed to bring about
Despite the liberal use of statistics, this book is eminently readable.
All three of the authors have previous publications in the area of
Chicano labor. In writing the present book, they have made a significant
contribution toward updating our knowledge about this important sub-
Illinois State University GEORGE C. KISER
Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing. By Frank E.
Vandiver. (2 volumes; College Station: Texas A&M University
Press, 1977. Pp. xxii+ 1178. Preface, illustrations, maps, bibliog-
raphy, index. $35.)
Readers of Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing will
find many of the customary virtues of Frank E. Vandiver's work. His
prose is well-crafted, if occasionally on the florid side, he has an evident
empathy for the soldier's life, and his ability to describe armed combat
is superb. There are passages where Pershing's experiences under fire
receive vivid rendering. As a biography and analysis of a military
career, however, these two lengthy volumes are disappointing, and the
definitive life of Pershing has yet to be written.
Seeing most events through Pershing's eyes, Vandiver adopts an
uncritical posture toward his hero, and is too hard on the general's
military rivals in the American army. The author shows that Pershing
was, as Robert L. Bullard said, "always a good courtier," who could
shade the facts in the interests of his own advancement (p. 677). Be-
cause of Pershing's conflicts with Leonard Wood and Peyton C. March,
it is odd that Vandiver and his researchers did not apparently consult
the personal papers of these two officers. Such other pertinent collec-
tions as the William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Elihu Root,
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 81, July 1977 - April, 1978. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101205/. Accessed December 25, 2014.