Southwestern Historical Quarterly
are helpful. Anyone interested in the history of Mexican wildlife in this
century may find this book useful. It is a must for those interested in
conservation or who desire to enjoy the north Mexican wilderness,
whether or not hunting and fishing are among their pleasures.
U.S. Forest Service DAVID A. CLARY
John Collier's Crusade for Indian Reform, 1920o-1954. By Kenneth R.
Philp. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1977. Pp. viii+3o4.
Foreword, preface, illustrations, bibliographical essay, index.
In this first full-length study of John Collier, Kenneth R. Philp, a
member of the History Department at the University of Texas at Ar-
lington, provides significant information regarding the factors which
motivated Collier to develop his philosophy towards and adopt pro-
grams for Native Americans. Childhood tragedies, a liberal education
both in the United States and abroad, and fervent dissatisfaction with
the ideas of Social Darwinism and the resultant ruthless individualism
are some of the factors that influenced the shaping of Collier's views on
methods to eradicate poverty, disease, and defective education on In-
During the Progressive Era and the 192os, Collier became associated
with several organizations to help immigrants adjust to the new way of
life in America. This experience as well as his later efforts to protect
the land claims of the Pueblo Indians convinced Collier that coordi-
nated group activities and communal living were the panaceas for solv-
ing the worst problems faced by immigrants and Indians alike.
In 1933 Collier became Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and for the
next twelve years he tried to implement his policies. Philp discusses
the obstacles and opponents, both white and Indian, with whom Col-
lier had to grapple. The section on the Wheeler-Howard bill which
eventually became the less effective Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
is deftly presented.
On the negative side, the author could have provided more analysis
not only of the Indian New Deal in operation, but also of several of the
individuals mentioned throughout the book. Although Philp has relied
on primary sources for his study, employment of other available pri-
mary materials, such as the Indian Rights Association correspondence,
could have added to its effectiveness.
Philp's portrayal of Collier is generally a balanced one. Collier was
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 82, July 1978 - April, 1979. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101206/. Accessed March 8, 2014.