Southwestern Historical Quarterly
of the Snow Bowl skiing area was permitted. Watson Parker's brief
essay about guns on the western frontier appears to have overlooked
Walter Prescott Webb's study of the Colt revolver.
One of the longer and better essays, by Michael L. Tate, supports
the thesis set forth by Francis Paul Prucha in his Broadax and Bayonet
(1953). Tate catalogues over a score of tasks performed by the frontier
army, and the list will surprise many historians. George O. Coalson's
study of Texas Mexicans in the Texas Revolution should be trans-
lated into Spanish to help Texas Mexicans understand the many con-
tributions Tejanos made to independence. Bobby H. Johnson traces
the growth of education in Oklahoma Territory from 1889 to 19o6.
He has gathered an imposing collection of statistics, but he does not
make clear how the long depression of the 189os affected these devel-
A list of Hollon's publications and notes on the contributors con-
clude this book about the American West.
University of Texas, Austin ROBERT C. COTNER
The Missions of New Mexico Since 1776. By John L. Kessell. (Albu-
querque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1980. Pp. xii+
276. Preface, foreword, illustrations, bibliography, index. Cloth,
$25; deluxe limited edition, $1oo.)
The Hispanic missions of New Mexico are unique products of en-
vironment and tradition. Beginning in the seventeenth century, Span-
ish missionaries trekked north from Mexico to establish churches
among the sedentary pueblo dwellers. In their new surroundings the
missionaries employed their architectural traditions regarding spatial
composition and form, but modified them both to adapt to the en-
vironment of an arid land and to suit the skills of the Indian laborers.
Churches on either basilican or cruciform plans were often oriented
with their portals facing east, rather than west, according to ecclesiasti-
cal tradition. Thick walls were made of adobe, sometimes stone; fronts
often displayed only semblances of twin corner towers or of central
bell towers. Following their initial construction, the mission churches
suffered denaturalization, from both man and the elements, com-
mencing with the Pueblo Revolt in 168o and sometimes ending with
nineteenth- and twentieth-century insensitivity.
A sequel to The Missions of New Mexico, 1776: A Description by
Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez, John L. Kessell's book traces the
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 85, July 1981 - April, 1982. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101208/. Accessed December 5, 2013.