Southwestern Historical Quarterly
the depression displaying the classic frontier characteristics of self-
reliance and rugged individualism. During the 1930s, because of
desperate conditions and the temptations provided by federal money,
Texas relinquished the old-time values in order to survive. Nothing
was ever the same again.
Texans in Washington, D.C., like John Nance Garner and Jessie H.
Jones, helped to form the early New Deal. Later, after survival was
certain, their conservatism reasserted itself. The cattlemen learned to
proclaim independence and accept government subsidies at the same
time. The blacks received aid roughly in proportion to their percent-
age of the population, not according to their level of need; there is
ample evidence of discrimination. Only the National Youth Adminis-
tration, led in Texas by Lyndon B. Johnson, paid special attention to
black problems. The NYA even went so far as to establish a center
for black women. Although Texans managed to alter New Deal pro-
grams to suit local social conditions, they still had to cooperate with
the federal government. As one of the authors, Lionel V. Patenaude,
states, "Conservative Texas had been introduced to the twentieth
century" (p. 101).
There are gaps in this anthology. It is a situation that generally
cannot be avoided in such books, but there is no direct information
about women, Mexican-Americans, cities, or culture, other than Bill
C. Malone's essay on country music. Malone's article is interesting
since it tracks the popular growth of the music, but in this book it
stands isolated. The rest of the articles reflect a bias for politics and
the results of political action. The writing is mainly descriptive rather
than analytic, but the anthology contains a large amount of well-
documented information based upon primary materials. It is a useful
companion to Texas Cities and the Great Depression, edited by Wil-
lena C. Adams.
Colorado State University DAVID G. McCoMB
Indeh: An Apache Odyssey. By Eve Ball. (Provo, Utah: Brigham
Young University Press, 1980. Pp. xxi+ 334. Foreword, introduc-
tion, maps, illustrations, index. $19.95.)
Mix genuine love and respect for half a dozen small Apache tribes,
add more than thirty years of cleverly conducted interviews, compare
the oral reports of 283 interviewees with existing official government
documents, sift and select those you think most relevant, and you
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 85, July 1981 - April, 1982. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101208/. Accessed May 6, 2016.