Southwestern Historical Quarterly
vii). The editors provide an introduction to each article and thus place
each essay in the proper historical framework.
In the first essay, Paul D. Lack surveys the career of "Dave," a slave
who proved so rebellious that his owner leased him to the prison in
Huntsville; Dave's life demonstrated the rebelliousness of many slaves.
In the second article, Victor H. Treat explores the life of William Goy-
ens, a free black who had a strong impact on Texas history and who
proved, subject to limits imposed by whites, that free blacks could
Ann Patton Malone surveys the impact of Matt Gaines's career.
Gaines, an ex-slave, was self-educated and attained leadership through
his role as a black minister. During Reconstruction his service as a sen-
ator in the Texas legislature reflected his concern for the uplift of the
state's black community. His later life, spent in relative obscurity and
poverty, reflected the declining position of Afro-Americans in Texas.
In the following three articles, Bruce A. Glasrud investigates the life
of William M. McDonald, a business leader who strove for personal
wealth and power and who also advocated racial advancement through
self-help; Olive D. Brown and Michael R. Heintze delve into the
career of Mary Branch, a premier educator; and George R. Woolfolk
examines the life of Willette R. Banks, another college educator.
Michael L. Gillette explores the career of Heman Marion Sweatt,
who achieved instant fame when Sweatt v. Painter reached the Su-
preme Court. Included in the article are the intricate details of bring-
ing civil-rights cases to court. The final essay, by Frank H. Wardlaw,
considers the achievements of John Biggers, Texas's most important
In sum, Black Leaders is a solid contribution to black history and to
Texas history. Authors of the various essays often touch upon fresh ma-
terial for the future telling of black history in the state. Editors Barr
and Calvert are to be congratulated, as are their contributors.
Oklahoma State University JAMES SMALLWOOD
The Rainmakers: American "Pluviculture" to World War II. By
Clark C. Spence. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 198o.
Pp. x+ 181. Preface, illustrations, notes, index. $15.95.)
The history of "pluviculture" involves a number of characters set
against the nineteenth-century backdrop of American faith in scientific
progress coupled with a certain American propensity for quackery.
Some were a mixture of scientist and quack. Others were pure quacks
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 86, July 1982 - April, 1983. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101209/. Accessed September 17, 2014.