parts of the world and how it significantly altered the American char-
acter. The author should have demonstrated how the Indians' hatred
of reservations influenced future developments. For example, it led
to Indian opposition to such New Deal reform measures as the Alaska
and Oklahoma Indian Reorganization acts and to the decision to mi-
grate to urban areas after 1945.
Utley has written a very good overview of the Indian frontier in
the second half of the nineteenth century. The narrative is enhanced
by numerous photos, maps, illustrations, and a comprehensive bibli-
ography. This volume will be of interest to both scholars and the
University of Texas at Arlington KENNETH R. PHILP
Jefferson and Southwest Exploration: The Freeman and Custis Ac-
counts of the Red River Expedition of i8o6. By Thomas Free-
man and Peter Custis. Edited by Dan L. Flores. (Norman:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1984. Pp. xx+386. Editor's intro-
duction, preface, acknowledgments, epilogue, illustrations, maps,
notes, appendices, bibliography, index. $48.50.)
Dan L. Flores has annotated the documents of the Thomas Freeman
and Peter Custis Red River expedition of 1806. A lengthy introduc-
tion by Flores places the Red River in historical context, noting the
troubled relations between the United States and Spain, the implica-
tions of the Aaron Burr conspiracy, and the ever-questionable be-
havior of General James Wilkinson.
Readers will appreciate this early account, which graphically de-
picts the rugged, nearly pristine wilderness of the lower Red River. An
abiding concern with environmental history is evident in Flores's co-
pious annotations, which frequently trace changes in Red River ecolo-
gy since 18o6. It is obvious that Flores has spent a good deal of time on
and along the river.
My primary caveats with Jefferson and Southwestern Exploration
arise not from Flores's work per se, but a difference in editorial phi-
losophy. To my mind Flores frequently over-annotates, writing notes
that are often not-so-brief essays. Also, this volume is actually two
books in one. Flores's introduction and epilogue is a history of the
Red River in United States-Spanish diplomacy, while the Freeman-
Custis documents comprise a standard documentary edition. Some
readers will appreciate having all of this material between two covers,
but others might have preferred "either-or" at a more modest price.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 88, July 1984 - April, 1985. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101210/. Accessed August 5, 2015.