The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 91, July 1987 - April, 1988

Southwestern Historical Quarterly

an urban nation to West Texas. Nall's essay provides a very good over-
view of the development and condition of Panhandle agriculture. He
draws no conclusion as to what long-range effect the farmers' new mi-
nority status will have on the state but suggests that the trend toward
fewer operators and larger units seems irreversible. Irvin M. May, Jr.,
has contributed a historiographical essay on Texas agriculture that will
serve as a good introduction and bibliographical guide for those first
embarking on research on the state's agrarian history.
Overall, Agricultural Legacies possesses the strengths and weaknesses
of most Festschrifts. They tend not to propose new historical interpreta-
tions but rather to offer syntheses of research done by mature scholars.
As such, this book is a welcome addition to agricultural history.
Texas A&M University ROBERT A. CALVERT
Paper Medicine Man: John Gregory Bourke and His American West. By
Joseph C. Porter. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.
Pp. xviii+362. Preface, maps, photographs, notes, bibliography,
index. $29.95-)
John G. Bourke's work with the Indians of the Plains and Southwest
provides greater insight into the variety of indigenous American life-
styles than the work of any other single ethnologist of the late nine-
teenth century. His breadth of study, easy writing style, and contact
with the important military, political, and ethnological figures made
him a major force in the political and scientific world of his day, and his
impact continues in official policy today.
Following a classical education and volunteer service in the Civil War,
Bourke attended West Point and was posted in the Apacheria as an aide
to General George Crook. When Crook was reassigned to the Plains in
the 187os, Bourke accompanied him. These assignments provided the
basis of the work that produced both scientific and popular under-
standing of the American Indian. Bourke's classical training inspired
him to record his activities and those of his companions and adver-
saries. The result was that Bourke developed an admiration for the
Indian, as well as understanding. This respect developed into friend-
ship, and Bourke was able to record many aspects of Plains and South-
west life that others were not able to ascertain. These contacts caused
Bourke to change his philosophy significantly and to attempt to influ-
ence official policy. Initially accepting the theories of Lewis Henry Mor-
gan, Bourke first believed that military campaigns would help to "raise"
the American Indian from "savagery" to "civilization." He came to take

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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 91, July 1987 - April, 1988. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101211/. Accessed August 21, 2014.