Southwestern Historzcal Quarterly
their race in the South in 1980. Yet black-family income in Houston was
still only 61 percent of white-family income, a percentage that was typi-
cal of less prosperous southern cities and that indicated Houston's
blacks were not "catching up" with local whites. Thus, the city's much-
touted boom merely maintained existing patterns of income distribu-
tion and did not narrow the economic distance between black and
white families. Bullard further argues that Houston's fascination with
business expansion actually diverted attention from the sometimes
worsening long-term structural problems within the black community.
This book is by no means an exhaustive study, and the author did not
attempt to create a "flesh and blood" portrait of daily black life. Yet the
quantitative data that is presented clearly outlines the important socio-
economic forces that shape and restrict living conditions for black
Houstonians. Thus, Bullard's volume is a beneficial introduction to
black urban problems and a necessary first step toward illuminating the
situation of an "invisible" minority.
University of Texas at El Paso CHARLES H. MARTIN
Gettysburg: The Second Day. By Harry W. Pfanz. (Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 1987. Pp. xx+6ol. Preface, acknowledg-
ments, maps, illustrations, epilogue, appendix, notes, bibliography,
index. $34.95, cloth.)
Harry W. Pfanz, who retired from the position of Chief Historian of
the National Park Services in 1981, has written the definitive history of
the Second Day, July 2, at Gettysburg. The author, who spent ten years
of his federal service as a park historian posted at Gettysburg, is well
acquainted with the two ingredients that make this book the "Bible for
July 2, 1863": the terrain, which determined the mode of fighting; and
the participants, who determined the outcome of the fighting.
That July 2 was, next to July i, the most critical day of the battle is, of
course, the reason historian Pfanz selected it. Of the three days of
battle, the second day was the hardest fought, the most confused and-
discounting Pickett's charge on the third day-the most heroic. Harry
Pfanz does excellent work tying the events of the day together in a
meaningful sequence of unit movements and battle actions that places
a new focus on this day of battle.
Gettysburg: The Second Day may be too intricate for the casual Civil
War buff who is not sufficiently acquainted with the various units and
personalities involved in the battle to appreciate the details of Pfanz's
work. For knowledgeable Civil War enthusiasts, students, and histo-
rians, it fills a gap that has long existed in previously written accounts of
this crucial battle.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 92, July 1988 - April, 1989. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101212/. Accessed December 20, 2013.