Southwestern Historzcal Quarterly
was different than either the British or Spanish. This is the only essay
not read at the Webb Lectures. There was, Jaenen indicates, an absence
of racism, coercion, or threat in the French treatment of the natives.
Elizabeth A. H. John in her essay "The Riddle of Mapmaker Juan
Pedro Walker," tells a fascinating story about this young man. After his
experiences as one of the assistants to Ellicott in surveying the thirty-
first parallel, Walker eventually elected to serve Spain in Texas and the
Provincias Internas. His surveys and maps of that area provided infor-
mation for others such as Zebulon M. Pike.
Finally, the essay by William H. Goetzmann, "Seeing and Believing:
The Explorer and the Visualization of Place," informs us about how
perceptions of the American West were influenced by artists. It was, he
states, "the artist-explorers" who "helped create the fundamental myth
or story of America" (p. 139).
While the topics ranged considerably, as this brief survey indicates, I
found the essays thought-provoking and enjoyable. I highly recom-
mend the volume to anyone at all interested in these subjects, though
an index would have been a valuable addition.
University of West Florida WILLIAM S. COKER
Gateway to Texas: The History of Orange and Orange County. Edited by
Howard C. Williams. (Orange, Tex.: Orange County Historical
Commission, 1988. Pp. xiii+261. Acknowledgments, foreword,
preface, introduction, illustrations, appendix, bibliography, index.
Located in the extreme southeast corner of the state, Orange County
is indeed the "gateway to Texas." Visitors entering the state from South
Louisiana get their first view of Texas in Orange County.
The county was created in 1852 by separating the area east of the
Neches River from Jefferson County. There are different versions of
the way the county acquired its name. Some believe it came from
orange trees that grew in the region, but it is more likely the name
came from Orange, New Jersey, the home of one of the commissioners
who organized the county. The county seat was originally known as
Green's Bluff, then later as Madison, but was designated as "Orange" in
the late 185os. Early development of the county was slow but the lumber
industry in the late nineteenth century, followed by oil, shipbuilding,
and petrochemicals, brought prosperity and economic growth. More
recently, economic retrenchment has affected the county, but based
upon recovery from earlier setbacks, the authors of this volume believe
the area will experience another golden age of development.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 93, July 1989 - April, 1990. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101213/. Accessed July 11, 2014.