degree than did Protestant denominations needs qualification. Slaves,
no matter their affiliation, demonstrated a sound instinct to take from
biracial worship that which suited their needs and to ignore that which
did not. White churchmen, even the reform-minded, firmly identified
with the master race.
Clarence Mohr's study of biracial churches in Confederate Georgia
gives striking evidence that evangelical churchmen saw Southern inde-
pendence as an opportunity to reform slavery. Their urgings turned to
Jeremiads with each Confederate reverse, and according to Mohr,
ameliorative arguments strengthened doubts about the morality of
slavery. The search for guilt over slavery has lately taken on the dimen-
sions of a quest. Under the best of circumstances and when freely ad-
mitted, assessment of guilt is speculative. Among a shattered, destitute,
and defeated people guilt and doubt are normal reactions.
Katharine Dvorak argues persuasively that decisive action on the
part of blacks accounts for the exodus from biracial churches during
Reconstruction. Separation from their white brethern was part of the
black perception of liberty.
Masters and Slaves is crowded with challenge for future research and
barely scratches the surface of sources that will yield salient insights for
social historians-whether their concern is religion or race.
McNeese State University CAROLYN E. DE LATTE
The New South Faces the World: Foreign Affairs and the Southern Sense of
Self, i877-195o. By Tennant S. McWilliams. (Baton Rouge: Loui-
siana State University Press, 1988. Pp. viii+165. Acknowledg-
ments, introduction, notes, essay on sources, index. $22.50.)
In his analysis of the evolution of foreign policy views among the ad-
vocates of the New South from isolation in the immediate postbellum
years through the early years of the Cold War, Tennant S. McWilliams
argues that these leaders sought to inject something positive into Ameri-
can foreign policy from their own sectional experiences. Using a selec-
tive case-study approach, McWilliams focuses on the issues of Hawaiian
annexation, the Spanish-American War, interest in the China market,
Anglo-Saxon leadership in the context of Wilsonianism, and post-
World War II social changes in the South that compelled it to seek sec-
tional redemption through an embrace of the Cold War. With this in-
corporation of Cold War thinking, these southern leaders gave up their
resistance to expansion.
McWilliams employs C. Vann Woodward's unfulfilled wish that the
burdens of southern history could temper the deleterious effects of
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 93, July 1989 - April, 1990. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101213/. Accessed June 3, 2015.