The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 94, July 1990 - April, 1991

Book Reviews

tain the irrigation systems intact in fact provided continuity in land ten-
ure arrangements, in spite of the dispossession of Indian owners. Irri-
gation rights were conveyed along with the parcels of land, because all
of the mission lands in San Antonio were irrigated. (The author's label-
ing of such rights as "riparian" is inexact; they were rights in admin-
istered irrigation systems, which is not the same.)
The Supreme Court of independent Texas, mistaking trusteeship
for ownership, held that the Catholic Church still owned the missions.
This legal mistake, in effect, saved the missions as historical monu-
ments as the Church undertook to preserve the physical structures, or
what remained of them. The book is completed by some fascinating
documents (including one from 1824 in which the stone walls of Mis-
sion San Juan are inventoried in cart loads, because they were presumed
available for use as building supplies).
Boston Universzty THOMAS F. GLICK
The Pueblo Indian Revolt of i696 and the Franciscan Misszons in New Mex-
ico: Letters of the Misszonarzes and Related Documents. Translated,
edited, and with an introduction by J. Manuel Espinosa. (Norman:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1988. Pp. xviii+313. Preface, intro-
duction, notes, illustrations, bibliography, index. $27.95.)
In the closing decade of the seventeenth century, Diego de Vargas,
newly appointed governor of New Mexico, reconquered the province
as a royal colony for the crown of Spain. For nearly eighty years after
Juan de Oiiate initially occupied the northern wilderness, the Spanish
government maintained the distant colony out of spiritual or religious
commitment rather than for material or political advantage. The reli-
gious factor, therefore, clearly outweighed administrative, economic,
and military considerations. In an environment that was sparsely popu-
lated and geographically isolated, Hispanic settlers in New Mexico sym-
bolized Hapsburg resolution to defend frontier areas and, thereby, dis-
courage rival nations from encroaching upon the heartland of Spanish
North America.
Motivated by religious zeal to convert the pueblo cultures to an His-
panic life-style, including acceptance and practice of Christianity as a
mode of behavior, Franciscan friars, with scant military aid, organized
the scattered villages in the Rio Grande basin into a vast missionary
field. Complementing the work of the Franciscans, civilian and soldier
settlers established homesteads in non-pueblo lands. For almost seven
decades, with satellite hamlets clustered around it, the Villa of Santa Fe
proudly proclaimed Spanish presence in humid northern New Mexico.
Suddenly, in 168o, the fury of the Pueblo Rebellion, stemming from

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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 94, July 1990 - April, 1991. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101214/. Accessed September 17, 2014.