members. Garcia interviewed key organizer John C. Solis, a furniture salesman
and one-time high school dropout, but does not address his ideas. The lack of
discussion about members like Solis fosters the stereotype that this middle class
consisted of college-educated lawyers and paralleled the Anglo middle class of
San Antonio. Garcia failed to utilize LULAC membership lists, and offers
no evidence of the occupations of LULAC members; in fact, skilled laborers
and businessmen constituted important sectors. Absent is a discussion of how
women fit into class formation in San Antonio.
Despite a claim to understanding gender, Garcia ignores gender and women.
He does not address why it was a man who edited La Prensa and men who
founded LULAC. He discounts the activities and ideas of las ricas, the LULAC
ladies auxiliary, the Ladies LULAC council, and wives of LULAC men. Garcia
also neglects the LULAC Archive, founded in 1980, at the Benson Latin Amer-
ican Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. He misses the monthly
LULAC News, published since 1931, and disregards collections which provide
evidence that the Sons of America, founded in 1921, manifested a Mexican
American identity years before LULAC.
The significance of Garcia's book, however, cannot be overstated. It is one of
the first Chicano history books to address conflict and differences within the
Mexican origin community, outside of relations with Euroamericans. More-
over, it is one of the first historical studies of class in the Mexican origin com-
munity and thus a major contribution.
University of Californza at Los Angeles CYNTHIA E. OROZCO
Counsel to the Preszdent. By Clark Clifford with Richard Holbrooke. (New York:
Random House, 1991. Pp. xix + 709. Author's notes, black-and-white
photographs, illustrations, acknowledgements, works consulted, notes, in-
Clark Clifford has long been a legendary figure in American political history.
Widely recognized as the chief architect of Harry Truman's amazing upset vic-
tory in 1948, he left the White House before the Truman administration be-
came paralyzed by Korean War controversies and Sen. Joseph McCarthy's sav-
age attacks. For the next three decades, he practiced law in Washington,
earning high fees by showing clients how to deal with the federal bureaucracy
he knew so well while privately advising Democratic presidents from Kennedy
to Carter. His most noted public service came in 1968, when he succeeded
Robert McNamara as secretary of defense at the climax of the Vietnam War.
In these pages, Clifford plays down his role as a Washington lawyer and
political operator; instead he stresses his commitment to deeply-held convic-
tions, ranging from an attempt to preserve the New Deal in the 1940s to avoid-
ing the Vietnam fiasco in the 196os. What comes through most clearly, how-
ever, is not Clifford's ideology but his extraordinary skill as an advocate. Using
the techniques he had honed as a trial lawyer in St. Louis before World War II,
he helped guide several presidents through difficult problems. Rarely creative
or original in his thinking, he had the ability to take the ideas of others, ranging
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 96, July 1992 - April, 1993. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101215/. Accessed May 20, 2013.