356 Southwestern Historical Quarterly October
Alice Sheppard is a psychologist by training but an excellent introduction by
historian Elizabeth Israels Perry and the author's historical awareness of the
woman suffrage movement make the book a significant case study in the broad-
er history of art and the movement for women's rights. Sheppard spent more
than a decade searching for and analyzing cartoons by three dozen women
artists who largely donated, rather than sold, their artistic skills to the suffrage
press, most notably Suffragist, Woman's Journal, Woman Voter, and Maryland Suf-
frage News. Representative of the group were Annie Lucaster "Lou" Rogers,
Blanche Ames, Ida Sedgwick Proper, Nina Evans Allender, and Mary Ellen Sigs-
bee. Partly because Sheppard's study is about the symbols, images, and
metaphors the women cartoonists relied upon to depict the suffrage cause in
particular and feminism in general, and as none of these artists lived in Texas,
the book's appeal may be limited to students in those fields. This book will stand
the test of time, however, and as the impeachment of Gov. James E. Ferguson at-
tested, the suffrage movement was as healthy in 1917 as the feminist movement
is now--a situation which augurs well for audience approval.
University of Houston JAMES A. TINSLEY
The Mexican Petroleum Industry zn the Twentieth Century. Edited by Jonathan C.
Brown and Alan Knight. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992. Pp.
xvi+315. Preface, introduction, contributors, index. ISBN o-29276-o32-9.
More than a half century has passed since the government of Lazaro Cardenas
expropriated the foreign-owned oil companies operating in Mexico in 1938.
This monumental event defined both Cardenas's presidency and, in some re-
spects, the Mexican Revolution. On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of
the expropriation in 1988, a conference at the University of Texas at Austin ex-
amined its causes and consequences. The dozen essays in this volume are the re-
The expropriation laid the foundation for the subsequent state-sponsored
economic development of Mexico and the rightward drift of the revolutionary
government after 1940o. The government-operated oil industry, Petroleos Mexi-
canos (PEMEX), was never managed well and failed as a business. In its first
decade, the company encountered difficulties in organizing a vertically integrat-
ed industry, in working out relations with its workers, and in facing the interna-
tional boycott engineered by the multinational oil companies. These problems
are analyzed admirably in chapters by Ruth Adler, Fabio Barbosa Cano, and
Isidro Morales. Subsequently, hampered by a lack of capital and technology, PE-
MEX was unable to meet domestic requirements for petroleum-based products
and failed to explore for more oil. Nonetheless, the government's cheap fuel
policy underwrote much of Mexican industrial development.
Ironically, the radical act of expropriation led the nation to the right political-
ly. In his essay Alan Knight argues that, although the powerful conservative
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 98, July 1994 - April, 1995. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101216/. Accessed March 14, 2014.