The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 98, July 1994 - April, 1995

Southwestern Historical Quarterly

in such a fashion, representation was assured for the vast majority of the Confed-
eracy, often by polling refugees and soldiers in the field who claimed legal resi-
dence in occupied districts. This remarkable policy worked to the great
advantage of President Jefferson Davis in his promotion of tighter and more
stringent measures demanding more sacrifices from citizens as the fighting con-
tinued month after month. In the best American tradition, the bald assertion of
self-interest drove the entire process: Confederate citizens in Union-occupied
districts not only demanded harsher measures in order to gain their own libera-
tion, but also realized that they would not be called upon to make the necessary
sacrifices. In other words, enemy control also meant enemy protection. It would
be ridiculous to fear the sudden appearance of Confederate authorities enforc-
ing compliance with conscription and impressment measures in enemy-con-
trolled districts; rather, it was left up to fellow citizens in districts still under
Confederate control to make sacrifices. Clearly, support in Congress for the
Davis administration came most consistently and strongly from representatives
of districts under enemy control; those who hated Davis typically represented
the "free" Confederacy.
Without much more than a few coastal areas and towns under enemy control
at any time, Texas presents a mixed picture throughout the war, but as the con-
flict dragged on, the central and southern parts of the state increasingly resisted
Confederate measures. These were areas in which slavery had long been less
prominent and Unionist feeling most salient. In East Texas, where slavery flour-
ished and popular demands for secession had been most intense, support for
Davis's measures held on longest.
It is hard to imagine a more precise and illuminating dissection of the Con-
federate Congress than this. Used in conjunction with several other studies,
specifically Wildred Buck Yearns's The Confederate Congress (1960), Thomas B.
Alexander and Richard E. Beringer's The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress
(1972), EzraJ. Warner and Yearns's Biographical Register of the Confederate Congress
(1975), and George Rable's The Confederate Republzc (1994), this fine work will
stand the test of time and receive heavy use by a host of appreciative Civil War
scholars.
LBJLibrary T. MICHAEL PARRISH
Maximilian's Lieutenant: A Personal History of the Mexican Campaign. Translated by
Gordon Etherington-Smith. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
1993. Pp. x+201. Preface, introduction, bibliography, index. ISBN o-82631-
425-2. $39.95.)
Ernst Pitner, an Austrian junior officer who volunteered for service in the
armies of Maximilian, the imposed emperor of Mexico, kept a journal and regu-
larly wrote to his mother about his Mexican experiences from 1864 to 1867. Al-
though some of the diary and letters were lost, many of the documents survived
in the family's possession in Vienna. After learning of the documents' existence,

626

April

Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 98, July 1994 - April, 1995. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101216/. Accessed August 30, 2014.