2 ooo Book Reviews 519
and reciprocal obligations, including "fictive" kin relationship or kin relation-
ships through ritual adoptions. They solidified gift exchange and trade between
European leaders and Caddo chiefs, and contributed to the power and chiefly
authority of the Caddo leaders. In these chapters, La Vere also discusses the
effect of European diseases on Caddoan polities, which decimated Caddo popula-
tions and led to population declines of more than 90 percent over two centuries
of contact and contributed to the amalgamation of once separate Caddo polities;
the importance of Caddo-European intermarriage; the effects of slave raiding by
the Osage and Chicksaw on group movements and the balance of Native
American power in the Southern Plains and French-Spanish Louisiana; and the
impact of European mercantile capitalism on aboriginal economic strategies.
In the book's penultimate chapter, "The Chiefdoms Shatter," La Vere reviews
how the Caddo strategy of persuasion rather than force, kinship relationships
and gift-giving, and alliance-building with Europeans and other Native American
groups fared poorly among American settlers and government agents after the
1803 United States purchase of Louisiana. The principal problem the Caddo
chiefdoms faced was the expropriation of the traditional lands by Americans.
The Americans wanted relationships with the Caddo peoples only if they led to
ways for them to take Caddo lands. "The problem for the Caddos was not that
they adopted strangers into their families. It was when strangers refused to
become family. When family members did not uphold their obligations, things
fell apart. And things did fall apart for the Caddos" (p. 152).
The Caddo Chiefdoms is a welcome addition to the "Indians of the Southeast"
series published by the University of Nebraska Press. It should be of particular
interest to historians, ethnohistorians, and archeologists interested in the history
of the Caddo peoples.
Archeological & Environmental Consultants, Austzn TIMOTHY K. PERTTULA
Tales of the Sabzne Borderlands: Early Louisiana and Texas Fiction by Theodore Pavze.
Edited and with an introduction and notes by Betje Black Klier.
Translations by Betje Black Klier, Anne C. Marsh, Philip Stewart, and
Alexandra K. Wettlaufer. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press,
1998. Pp. 144. Illustrations, map. ISBN 0-89096-854-3. $15.95, paper.)
Eighteen-year-old Theodore Pavie spent the winter of 1830o near Natchitoches,
Louisiana, visiting his uncle, Charles Pavie, at his plantation. A native of Angers,
France, the younger Pavie's experiences on his journey were the basis of a series
of fictional short stories written after his return to France, where they were pub-
lished: Le Nigre and Le Lazo in 1832, La Peau d'ours in 185o and El Cachupzn in
1861. With the exception of El Cachupin, republished in New York in 1899 for
American students of French, Pavie's stories existed obscurely in France until the
1980s, when they were located by the editor of this volume.
Betje Black Klier, Anne C. Marsh, Philip Stewart, and Alexandra K. Wettlaufer
collaborated to translate the Frenchman's stories for English readers. Edited
and annotated by Klier, a specialist in French culture and civilization, her writ-
ing sometimes is uneven and her meaning sometimes is unclear. In future
reprints, the sections titled "Editor's Notes, Groups Represented by the
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 103, July 1999 - April, 2000. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101220/. Accessed February 10, 2016.