well-written historical analyses with the individual experiences of women in an
arena long dominated by men. Jones and Winegarten not only incorporate the
achievements of the more visible and recent politicians like Ann Richards,
Frances Farenthold, and Kay Bailey Hutchison, but they uncover the legacy of
those like Laura Negley, Viginia Duff, and Myra Banfield, who distinguished
themselves as capable lawmakers.
Given that Texas women could not vote until 1920, the book is a twentieth-
century review of eighty-six noteworthy Texas female legislators. Jones and
Winegarten tell the story through short biographical essays that are chronologi-
cally organized. The authors rely heavily upon archival resources and use
numerous oral history interviews in order to flesh out personal aspects of the
narrative. The book's greatest strength is the inclusion of introductory essays
placing women's political contributions in proper perspective. The articles
remind us that even an enlightened democratic society can do considerable
damage to itself by disenfranchising one half of the potential electorate. By
using both the contextual articles and the biographical essays the authors offer a
revealing historical account of Texas female legislators and the impact they had
on Texas political development.
Especially useful are Jones's and Winegarten's references to the various chal-
lenges and prejudices women encountered in public office. They cite the barri-
ers imposed by the so-called "glass ceiling"-the invisible obstacle that continual-
ly restricts women from higher achievement in politics and other professions.
The authors point out that the "old boy" system worked to limit the effectiveness
of female politicians, or any elected public servant who dared to be different,
worked outside the usual paths of power, or threatened the status quo. Jones
and Winegarten also give a tantalizing glimpse of the cultural pressures and
familial expectations that have both empowered and limited the aspirations of
women who work in the interest of the public trust.
Texas Tech University TAI KREIDLER
Hazel Vaughn Leigh and the Fort Worth Boys' Club. By J'Nell Pate. (Fort Worth:
Texas Christian University Press, 2000. Pp. ix+179. Preface, epilogue, notes,
bibliography, index. ISBN o-87565-2o6-9. $12.95, paper.)
Influenced by the reform movements of the Progressive Era, Hazel Vaughn
Leigh dedicated her life to establishing and overseeing the Fort Worth Boys'
Club. In an interesting biography, J'Nell Pate explores the life and work of
Leigh, her dedication to the Boys' Club, and the struggles she faced as a woman
working in a predominantly male organization.
Although the majority of Leigh's life was spent in Fort Worth, it was during a
brief time living in San Francisco with her husband, Grover, that Hazel became
interested in the Boys' Club. Returning to Fort Worth in 1926, Hazel sought
solace from a troubled marriage by engaging herself in charity work. She began
working with the Panther Boys' Club and later became president of the club's
Women's Council; however, due to internal tensions, Leigh and several other
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 104, July 2000 - April, 2001. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101221/. Accessed October 20, 2014.