the collection, Robert E. May's "Manifest Destiny's Filibusters," notes that the
term "filibuster" came into use a few years after O'Sullivan's article but, like
"Manifest Destiny," simply named attitudes and actions already evident in the
thinking of many Americans. May defines filibustering as "private military inva-
sions" (p. 149) of friendly nations, thereby distinguishing between actions that
had at least nominal government sanctions and those that did not. While fili-
busters might want to "share democracy" (162) in keeping with the themes of
Manifest Destiny, they also wanted to seize and control, and they wound up cre-
ating international crises.
It is no surprise, then, that many American government officials would consid-
er the filibusters a problem. In fact, as SamuelJ. Watson argues in another of the
collection's essays, "The Uncertain Road to Manifest Destiny: Army Officers and
the Course of American Territorial Expansion," army officers of the antebellum
period were not "ardent expansionists" (p. 68) but increasingly conservative
maintainers of federal sovereignty. Not only were they concerned with direct
challenges to that sovereignty, but they often had "unenthusiastic responses to
the opportunities presented by expansion" in general (p. 1oo).
Other articles in the collection include John Belohlavek's "Race, Progress, and
Destiny: Caleb Cushing and the Quest for American Empire," Thomas R.
Hietala's "'This Splendid Juggernaut': Westward a Nation and Its People," and
Sam W. Haynes's "Anglophobia and the Annexation of Texas: The Quest for
National Security." Belohlavek examines Cushing as a prominent advocate of
.expansion, a man with intellectual virtues which have been overshadowed histor-
ically by his pronounced racism and militarism. Hietala examines various factors,
particularly strong racial prejudices and ethnocentrism, underlying the fine-
sounding expansionist rhetoric of the era.
Perhaps most intriguing is Haynes's full and thoughtful discussion of the part
Anglophobia played in the battle over the annexation of Texas. Haynes demon-
strates that fear of British power manipulation was common among American
leaders and the American populace, even among those criticizing the use of the
British threat to justify Texas annexation. The difference, however, was that
"each section or interest group viewed the precise nature of the British danger
differently" (p. 140).
Overall, this is a very satisfying collection, with edifying perspectives on an era
in which expansionists prevailed, although not as fully as many of them would
St. Edwards Unzversity, Austin Paula Marks
The Papers of Andrew Johnson. Volume 16. May 1869-July 1875. Edited by Paul H.
Bergeron. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 200. Pp. xxxii+8o4.
Introduction, acknowledgments, editorial method, chronology, appendix,
index. ISBN 1-57233-o91-o. $60.oo, cloth.)
This volume of Andrew Johnson's papers covers the period from shortly after
he left the presidency in 1869 until his death in July 1875. During these years
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 104, July 2000 - April, 2001. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101221/. Accessed January 25, 2015.