2002 Book Reviews 319
book: seven of the eight essays have been published before but each is revised to
some extent. Six of the essays were published in works edited by Gallagher in the
"Military Campaigns of the Civil War" series.
In section one, Gallagher draws upon many contemporary sources to address
issues related to national morale and Lee's campaigns, demonstrating that Con-
federates maintained support for their cause, even when the course of the war
seemed to turn against them. To emphasize what may be the most striking of the
four essays on campaigns, Gallagher contends that numerous contemporary doc-
uments from the summer of 1863 show that "many southerners did not view the
battle of Gettysburg as a catastrophic defeat" (p. 83). This piece is vital reading
for all students of the Civil War. Another chapter addresses what may seem to be
the surprisingly favorable outlook of many soldiers and officers in Lee's Army of
Northern Virginia in the spring of 1864. Gallagher shows how many Confeder-
ates could conclude that the 1862 Maryland campaign had points in the South's
favor. Discussing these unappreciated contemporary perspectives allows readers
to understand that from the second year of the war to its end, many Confeder-
ates put the best face on events.
The second section contains three essays on "Lee as a Confederate General."
The most effective of these pieces asks if Lee was "An Old-Fashioned Soldier in a
Modern War?" Gallagher asserts persuasively that Lee demonstrated several
modernistic features of leadership and soldiering, countering criticisms by such
historians as Thomas L. Connelly and Alan Nolan.
The new essay is "Shaping Public Memory of the Civil War: Robert E. Lee,
Jubal A. Early, and Douglas Southall Freeman." Obviously, Lee was a vital ele-
ment in the Confederacy's war effort, but Early carried out a remarkably success-
ful postwar campaign as a writer and speaker that heightened Lee's place in
Southern and American history. Freeman further strengthened Lee's status with
his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography in the 1930s.
This book forms a part of Gallagher's "continuing effort to comprehend how
military and civilian affairs intersected during the Civil War" (p. xiii). He suc-
ceeds in giving readers new perspectives on the Confederacy's total war effort
and its failed struggle for nationhood. Excellent maps and well-chosen illustra-
tions add to the work. Although Gallagher's discussion of Lee and his army con-
tains few mentions of Texas troops, it will be of interest to anyone studying the
Texas A &M University-College Station Joseph G. Dawson III
The Myth of the Lost Cause and Czvil War Hzstory. Edited by Gary W. Gallagher and
Alan T. Nolan. (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2001. Pp. 231.
Introduction, contributors, index. ISBN 0-253-33822-0. $29.95, cloth.)
In The Lost Cause and Civzl War Hzstory, noted Civil War scholars Gary W. Gal-
lagher and Alan T. Nolan address the historical importance and influence of
that strange hybrid of imagination, justification, and interpretation known as the
Lost Cause. Birthed by Edward Pollard's 1866 book The Lost Cause: A News South-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/. Accessed March 7, 2014.