markedly different cultural heritage found solutions to the crises of the colonial
encounter" (p. 31).
Brooks' identification of two branches of Borderlands captivity provides the
key concept around which he constructs his monograph. These two types of
captivity reflect the fundamental social impulses of inclusion and exclusion.
Borderlands captives, particularly women and children of Indian, Spanish, or
mixed heritage, were either adopted into kinship networks (inclusion) or sold
as slaves, to be exploited as laborers (exclusion). "Both branches of border-
lands slavery[,]" Brooks explains, "could interact because they grew from
shared patriarchal structures of power and patrimony that contrast sharply
with the racial divisiveness and labor exploitation around which the more
familiar forms of Euramerican enslavement of Africans functioned" (p. 34).
His focus on captivity allows the author to shed new light on major
Borderlands events, particularly the 168o Pueblo Revolt and the Comanche
Peace of 1785, both of which were fueled to a great extent by the trade in
slaves. Importantly, Brooks makes great strides in the history of genizaros, who
were detribalized Indian captives, often ransomed by Spaniards and taken
into their homes as servants, where their status ranged from slave to adopted
child. Here, as indeed in the entire book, the author makes substantial contri-
butions to Borderlands history, arguing with earlier findings by eminent
One of the many strengths of Brooks' work is his use of a variety of disciplines
and evidence to uncover Borderlands history. Captives and Cousns provides a
rich model of interdisciplinary scholarship, incorporating archeology, anthro-
pology, folklore, and linguistics in addition to painstaking archival research. The
author makes good use of geography as well, dividing the monograph into chap-
ters reflecting various Borderlands landscapes and their prevailing economies,
including los llaneros (plains-dwellers), los pastores (sheepherders), and los mon-
taiieses (mountain-dwellers). Other chapters deal with violence, exchange, and
honor, and commerce, kinship, and coercion. A description of Los Comanches, a
traditional New Mexican Christmas play focused on captive exchange, bookends
the text, underscoring the centrality of captives not just to the Borderlands econ-
omy, but to its culture as well.
Captzves and Couszns offers a brilliant and fascinating window into the complex
and multi-layered Borderlands economy, politics, diplomacy, culture, and soci-
ety. Indeed, Brooks' substantial revisions of Borderlands history make it a pivotal
work and a touchstone for all future Borderlands scholarship. It is a must-read
not only for Borderlands scholars, but for scholars of Latin America, Native
America, and colonial North America.
Hillsdale College DEDRA S. MCDONALD
New Mexzcan Lives: Profiles and Historical Stories. Edited by Richard W. Etulain.
(Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 2002. Pp. 334. Introduction, con-
tributors, index. ISBN 0-8263-2432-0. $39.95, cloth.)
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 107, July 2003 - April, 2004. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101224/. Accessed March 30, 2015.