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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, July 1925 - April, 1926

The Federal Indian Policy in Texas, 1845-1860

THE FEDERAL INDIAN POLICY IN TEXAS, 1845-1860
LENA CLARA KOCH
CHAPTER III
THE RANGERS AND FRONTIER PROTECTION
1. The Employment of Federal Troops
The Army During the War with Mexico.-Before taking up the
discussion of the ranger service in Texas, it is necessary to dis-
cover what part the Federal troops played in frontier protection.
Marcy's letter to Taylor quoted at the beginning of the last chapter
evinced the fact that the National Government recognized the re-
sponsibility to protect the Texas frontier from Indians, and pre-
pared to have a part of the United States Army in Texas imme-
diately following annexation. The first two years of statehood
were taken up with the Mexican war. During this period the
United States stationed a regiment of mounted men on the frontier
of Texas, and this proved sufficient protection.1
The Withdrawal of Troops at the Close of the War.-On the
conclusion of the war, the Central Government replaced these vol-
unteer troops by a part of the regular army, which it stationed at
points along the southwestern border.2 The withdrawal of the
troops from Texas was obviously a gradual procedure, for Craw-
ford, Secretary of War, wrote General Brooke, June 4, 1849, that
there were 1400 men for Texas; 1000 infantry, 100 artillery, and
300 dragoons; twenty-eight companies in all. This force, he said,
was equal to that which Texas organized while she was a republic,
and was deemed amply sufficient.3 About a month later, General
Brooke wrote Adjutant General Jones, complaining of the in-
adequacy of the force. The twenty-eight companies, he said, were
little over half full; altogether there were not over 1000 men. He
hoped the next Congress would increase the force, for large num-
bers of Indians were invading the state, and although he had the
authority to do so, he did not want to call on the Governor of
'Winkler, in Johnson-Barker, Texas and Texans, I, 510.
2Ibid.
'31st Cong., 1st Sess., House Doc. No. 5, pp. 138-139.

Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, July 1925 - April, 1926. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117141/. Accessed May 1, 2016.

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