and Clark initiated the "techniques of travel, trade, craftsmanship,
and sustenance that later characterized the field activities of the West-
ern beaver hunters." He overemphasizes, however, Jedediah Smith's
role in the pre-Mexican War American penetration of California,
refers to several "glorious fights" (a poor choice of words) in the
conquest of California in 1846-1847, and cites a few incorrect dates.
In chapters two through seven Russell gives the detailed history
and description of firearms, beaver traps, knives, axes, awls, arrow
points, blacksmith tools, and miscellaneous implements of the In-
dian trade. He frequently delves into the European background of
tools and weapons and ends each chapter with a valuable summary.
He recommends further study of the hand gun and the distinctively
American pipe tomahawk and concludes that the mountain men
largely adopted trading techniques used earlier on the Appalachian
frontier and borrowed firearm designs from the military.
In four appendixes he outlines the slow development of American
interest in historical archaeology, catalogues the early manufacturers
of axes and tomahawks, and reproduces an inventory of trade goods
at Astoria in 1813. Russell's thesis is sound: the wilderness did not
conquer the white invader; his iron conquered it, and the Indians
took "unto themselves [the tools] of the trader-trapper."
University of Texas at Austin JOHN E. SUNDER
Origins of the American Indians: European Concepts, 1492-1729. By
Lee Eldridge Huddleston. Austin (Published for the Institute
of Latin American Studies by the University of Texas Press),
1967. Pp. viii+179. Introduction, bibliography, index. $5.oo.
Most of us, including, I suppose, the Indians themselves, have won-
dered where the Indians came from. Few of us apparently have won-
dered much about what Europeans between 1492 and 1729 thought
and wrote about the problem. Even Latin American specialists have
neglected this area of intellectual history, as Lee Eldridge Huddle-
ston discovered when he examined their works. Their neglect has
turned out to be a happy fault, however, since it has called forth
this fascinating and instructive monograph on early discussions of
The year 1729 is not an arbitrary choice for the terminal date of
the study. Among other reasons, it serves to bound the world view
of the Christian West within which discussion of the origins question
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 72, July 1968 - April, 1969. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117146/. Accessed April 19, 2014.