Apache Indians in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, and the
influence of Jacobo Ugarte on that policy. Since Ugarte is the pro-
tagonist, Professor Moorhead has provided a sketch of his career prior
to becoming commandant-general of the Provincias Internas in 1786.
Moorhead's thesis is that Ugarte because of his lengthy experience on
the frontier and a humanitarian bent of character, was well-suited to
the formulation and execution of a viable policy toward the Apaches.
This policy-shaped by Ugarte, his predecessor Teodoro de Croix, and
Viceroy Bernardo de Galvez, and best expressed in Galvez' Instrucci6n
of 1786 to Ugarte-was based in a firm knowledge of the peripatetic
nature of the Apaches and the assumption that a "bad peace" was
preferable to a "good war." Since the Apaches were a nomadic people,
with no fixed homesites, no farms, no over-all polity, the Spaniards
found them a difficult foe. Sedentary tribes could be subdued by hold-
ing their properties in hostage; the Apaches, under Ugarte's policy,
were to be subdued through war and threat of war, broken by peace.
In the peaceful interludes the Spaniards were to attempt to civilize
the Apaches by reducing them to property-holders who could then be
controlled by threatening their immovable goods.
The implementation of this policy by Ugarte during 1786-1791 was
hindered by hawkish sometime-subordinates such as Governor Juan
de Ugalde of Coahuila and by such equally hawkish superiors as
Viceroy Flores. However by the end of his term as commandant-
general, New Spain's new viceroy, Revillagigedo, sympathized with
Ugarte, and he was able to effect his scheme of pressure and peace.
When Ugarte left the frontier, the Apaches were comparatively quiet.
Moorhead's study is, on the whole, acute and able. If it is not wholly
satisfying, that results as the author indicated, from the absence of
records with an Apache bias, and the dearth of personal information
on Ugarte. So, despite Professor Moorhead's excellent study of Ugarte's
public career and policy. Ugarte the man is still a mystery.
North Texas State University LEE HUDDLESTON
Songs of the American West. Compiled and edited by Richard E. Lin-
genfelter, Richard A. Dwyer, and David Cohen. Drawings by
Steven M. Johnson. Berkeley and Los Angeles (University of
California Press), 1968. Pp. xii+595. Illustrations, bibliography,
Have you sat around lately with a congenial group, one of whom
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 72, July 1968 - April, 1969. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117146/. Accessed September 21, 2014.