mism. He knows enough of art history to treat the subject fairly, and enough
of history to grant perspective. The book in its earlier edition became a
standard reference for students of American art and the West. With the
addition of two new chapters dealing with George Caleb Bingham and Ed-
ward and Richard Kern, a substantially enhanced design, and many more
color plates, one can more fully appreciate the contributions made to history
by the artists who took the West as their studio.
Amon Carter Museum of Western Art PETER H. HASSRICK
While into Red: A Study of the Assimilation of White Persons Captured by
Indians. By J. Norman Heard. (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scare-
crow Press, Inc., 1973. Pp.+ x i+80. Illustrations, notes, bibliography,
The "captivity" is a rather rare form of literature; the account of a per-
son who was captured by the Indians and survived to relate his experiences
and impressions. The captivity narrative is highly prized by bibliophiles and
libraries; bibliographers have focused attention on it, and it has been ana-
lyzed by scholars of various disciplines.
J. Norman Heard studied hundreds of these narratives to see what con-
clusions he could reach concerning the effect of the captivity experience on
the process of "Indianization" or acculturation. For the author Indianization
includes: attachment to individual Indians, fluency in Indian languages,
marriage with Indians, degree of skill in Indian activities, participation in
warfare against other tribes or raids against whites, attempts to escape, and
rejection or acceptance of opportunities to return to their white families.
Although nearly every conclusion that can be drawn from this data is
modified with many exceptions, generalizations do emerge. Furthermore,
Heard is satisfied that the accounts, although sometimes exaggerated and
containing inaccuracies, are generally reliable sources of information. Taking
note of these problems, he concludes that family upbringing, religious train-
ing, racial or national origins, and some variation in the treatment of white
captives at the hands of different Indian culture groups made only minor
differences in the rate or process of assimilation. The length of time of the
captivity was not the most important determinant. The crucial factor was
the age at which capture occurred. Boys below fourteen and girls below
twelve were generally "greatly Indianized." Too many variables make im-
possible the drawing of conclusions concerning readjustment of captives who
were returned to a white cultural context.
This book is heavily larded with lengthy quotations from numerous cap-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 77, July 1973 - April, 1974. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117148/. Accessed August 23, 2014.