Southwestern Historical Quarterly
counts and provides a sound basic historiography, but yet has many
voids. In a long and extremely detailed essay, Douglas D. Hale dis-
cusses ethnic groups in Oklahoma, the evolution of the state's econo-
my, and some of the processes of social change, but his contribution is
far less analytical than the others.
The Morgans have accomplished their goals of providing new ways
of thinking about the history of Oklahoma and stimulating further
inquiry. The University of Oklahoma Press has not served them well,
however, as the book has numerous printing errors and obvious mis-
takes in the citations both in the text and the footnotes. A volume of
such importance deserved greater editorial attention.
Texas A&M University KEITH L. BRYANT, JR.
Sawdust Empire: The Texas Lumber Industry, 1830-194o. By Robert
S. Maxwell and Robert D. Baker. (College Station, Tex.: Texas
A8cM University Press, 1983. Pp. xv+228. Preface, acknowledg-
ments, illustrations, bibliography, index. $24.95.)
This handsomely illustrated history of the Texas lumber industry
from 1830 to 1940, by Robert S. Maxwell and Robert D. Baker, is a
welcome addition to the short list of historical studies of southern
lumbering. Drawing upon such primary sources as company records,
photographs, trade publications, newspapers, and state and federal
records, Maxwell and Baker have done for the southern pine industry
of Texas approximately what Nollie Hickman did for the Mississippi
industry in his Mississippi Harvest: Lumbering in the Longleaf Pine
Belt, z84o0-95 (University, Miss., 1962), and, in addition, carried
the story to the eve of World War II.
As would be expected, the southern pine industry in Texas de-
veloped along lines parallel to the older industries of Georgia, Ala-
bama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, with one important exception. In
all of the Gulf states to the east of Texas, many rivers suitable for
large-scale logging penetrated the pine forests, allowing sizeable ex-
port lumber industries to flourish during the 184os and 185os. In East
Texas, where the vast stands of pine were found, this, however, was
not the case. There were very few streams with dependable water
flows, and sawmills accordingly remained small in size during the
antebellum period. Large mills were unable to operate until the
coming of the railroads in the 1870s. From that point, the Texas pine-
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 87, July 1983 - April, 1984. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117150/. Accessed July 10, 2014.