served in the Army during World War II. Returning to Athens, he joined his fa-
ther's firm, became involved in Texas Democratic politics, and served as a U.S.
Although he supported Lyndon B. Johnson in the disputed 1948 U.S. Senate
race, Justice was more liberal and remained independent. Still, Johnson did not
forget his early aid and nominated Justice, the choice of liberal Sen. Ralph
Yarborough, to the federal district court in 1968. Justice soon established him-
self as one of the nation's most activist federal judges. Kemerer devotes three-
quarters of the book to various categories of litigation which transformed public
policy in Texas and had ramifications throughout the nation. In finely wrought
case studies Kemerer explores the origins and outcomes of Justice's opinions in-
volving statewide school desegregation, voting rights, conditions of juvenile in-
carceration, the education of undocumented alien children, employment,
community placement of mentally retarded persons, desegregation of public
housing, First Amendment protections and rights of the accused, and prison re-
Kemerer succeeds on several levels. He explores the personal element of Jus-
tice's judicial life, including the role of law clerks and the consequences for his
family of the widespread hostility to his controversial decisions. Kemerer also
captures effectively the predominantly small-town East Texas ethos at the root of
this hostility and its relation to Texas politics within the legislature and across
the state. He effectively probes the institutional norms of the lower federal court
system, including the impact of political and legal values on the process of decid-
ing cases. Although sympathetic to Justice's liberal humanitarianism, Kemerer
shows that the actual results of the decisions often have been mixed. Altogether,
Kemerer makes an invaluable contribution to an increasingly important field of
Universzty of Alabama TONY FREYER
Small Fortunes: Two Guys in Pursuit of the American Dream. By Edward Zuckerman.
(New York: Viking Press, 1991. Pp. viii+296. Prologue, epilogue, postscript.
Paradoxically, Small Fortunes contains little direct analysis, yet contributes
more than most books on entrepreneurship to our understanding of how small
business operates in American society. It shadows two entrepreneurs as they
work for fame and fortune, only to have their dreams dissipated by the econom-
ic bust in Texas in the 198os.
The two guys are Pete Binion, a native Texan and Aggie, and Jim Teal, from a
working-class neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio, who would "become a Texan"
(p. 49). From a ranch outside College Station, Binion hoped to introduce to
Texas and the world a new breed of cattle, the Senepol, and to make money in
the process. Teal, who had left Wendy's Old Fashion Hamburgers (with a mil-
lion dollars) because it had become too bureaucratic, hoped to make another
fortune selling T-shirts from his Austin-based firm, Lin-Tex. Like the majority of
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 97, July 1993 - April, 1994. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117154/. Accessed September 5, 2015.