one later (p. 206). Thirty-one pages of index add much to
the value. The author has indeed related the "life story" of
the Congress, and the publishers have presented it in beautiful
J. L. WALLER.
College of Mines.
The Road to Disappearance. By Angie Debo.
Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1941. Pp. xii, 399. Illus-
trations, maps. $3.50.
The University of Oklahoma Press has added another study
to its excellent series on the civilization of the American Indian.
The Road to Disappearance retells the story of early Creek
Indian life, shifting the emphasis to focus it upon the internal
life of the tribe, and brings to light the history of the Creeks
since the Civil War. This period of Creek history, according
to Miss Debo, has been almost a complete blank. The story of
their life has remained hidden in the tribal records, the ob-
scure newspapers published in their country, the reports of
government agents, and the memories of older Indians. The
title of the book emanates from the reaction of the older Indians
to enforced removal to the West, "The Indian is now on the
road to disappearance."
The Creeks were one of the Five Civilized Tribes and one
of the last of the five to relinquish native customs, language, and
institutions. Two centuries ago they were resting in savage con-
tentment. Encroachment by the avid white settler meant for
them first a protectorate, and then political destruction and
removal to the wilderness west of the Mississippi. There they
rebuilt, but all too soon found themselves encircled by whites
seeking land, minerals, and railway concessions. The Civil War
rent the Creek Nation in twain. Its people were nearly equally
divided in the fratricidal strife, and probably nowhere in the
United States did the conflict leave such bitterness, but they
survived and built again. But the encircling menace of a new
frontier hindered their progress, and the coming of the rail-
roads did more than all else to settle and build the Indian
country according to the white man's customs, likes, and ideas.
By 1906 the tribal government had been shorn of most of its
powers. The end came when the Creeks and their white and
Indian neighbors became citizens of the new state of Oklahoma.
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 45, July 1941 - April, 1942. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146053/. Accessed February 9, 2016.