federacy, weakness of the executive branch of the civil govern-
ment was not one.
JEFFERSON DAVIS BRAGG
The Conflict Between the California Indian and White Civiliza-
tion, III (Ibero-Americana, Number 23). By S. F. Cook.
Berkeley and Los Angeles (University of California Press),
1943. Pp. 115, appendix. $1.25.
This book is the third essay by the same author on this sub-
ject, and is Number 23 of the University of California's Ibero-
Americana. It is devoted to "The American Invasion, 1848-
1870." When the California Indian was confronted with the
problem of contact and competition with the white race, his
success was much less marked with the Anglo-American than
with the Ibero-American branch. Both branches of the white
race had had long experience with the Indian. The Spanish,
however, had systematically availed themselves of human re-
sources, whereas the English had tapped only material wealth.
The Ibero-Americans utilized the natives and incorporated them
in their social and economic structure, whereas the Anglo-
Americans rigidly excluded them from their own social order.
During the early years of American occupation, the Indians were
subjected to constant attrition through direct physical conflict.
But later, besides the mortality of armed conflict, there occurred
a continuous series of violent deaths attributable to social
homicide, disease, malnutrition, enforced labor, and sex and
The author's conclusions are not complimentary to the Anglo-
Americans. The six wild tribes which came in conflict with the
Spanish system between 1800 and 1848 were reduced from
approximately 58,900 to 38,950, or 0.8 per cent annually. The
surviving mission Indians, together with the remainder of the
wild tribes, which were subjected to Anglo-American influence
from 1848 to 1865, diminished from 72,000 to 23,000, a mean
depletion of 2.9 per cent. From these figures alone, it is apparent
that the impact of settlement from the United States was three
times as severe as that of pre-American colonization.
The appendix contains a number of tables showing the
diminution of the natives by tribes from different causes during
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 49, July 1945 - April, 1946. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146056/. Accessed June 2, 2015.