Southwestern Historical Quarterly
the past century. Both the tables and text are well-documented,
and the author has drawn on his earlier published studies of the
California Indians. He concludes that the conflict of the natives
with settlers from the United States was characterized by far
greater violence than the conflict with the invaders from Latin
America. This violence was reflected in greater relative popula-
tion decline and in more difficult adjustment in all material
respects under the American occupation.
Edinburg Junior College OHLAND MORTON
The Ten Grandmothers. By Alice Marriot. Norman (University
of Oklahoma Press), 1945. Pp. xiv+306. Appendix (The
Kiowa Calendars), bibliography, map, and decorations.
Like most primitive peoples, the Kiowa Indians developed a
collection of tribal palladia. The Ten Grandmothers were sacred
"medicine" bundles around which centered legends of twin culture
heroes, called the Half Boys.
In The Ten Grandmothers, we find recorded a series of events
from the camp life, war path, and trail which re-creates the
social pattern of this tribe. The Kiowas were one of the last
of the Plains tribes to be subjugated. The Kiowa language is a
stock of its own, strange and peculiar, and is rapidly dying out.
It is perhaps because of the fact that there is no kindred tongue
that the Kiowas have a homogeneity not found among most of the
Plains Indians. They possess a distinct cultural pattern.
The Kiowas have been an elemental people, fierce and un-
relenting in conflict, feared and respected by their enemies.
To their friends they were staunch allies, trustworthy, courteous,
and hospitable. They lived a nomadic life on the vast prairies
of the West, subsisting on the buffalo herds which they followed.
Their legends, and a few scattered documents left by white
explorers, placed them as far north as the Yellowstone in the
late seventeenth century. Once they journeyed as far south as
British Honduras. Within living memory, they have been settled
in western Oklahoma, the Oklahoma and Texas Panhandles, and
Each of the thirty-three sketches represents Kiowa behavior
under given circumstances at a given time. It is only that no
one but a Kiowa would have behaved in that way, at that time,
Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 49, July 1945 - April, 1946. Austin, Texas. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth146056/. Accessed November 27, 2015.