HISTORY OF TEXAS.
lature, that while Indian troubles were less,
the Mexican border troubles continued unabated.
On May 5, this year, Governor Coke was
elected United States Senator, but continued
to exercise the functions of executive until
December 1, when he resigned, and Lieutenant
Governor Hubbard succeeded to the office.
During Governor Hubbard's admiiinistration
a serious trouble arose between Texan
and Mexican citizens in El Paso county,
which resulted in some bloodshed among the
bad characters, and probably even among
some of the good people. It originated in a
personal quarrel between Charles H. Howard
and Louis Cardis, concerning some salt deposits.
The United States military was
called into requisition before the fracas was
Oran M. Roberts was governor of Texas
during the years 1879-'80, during which
period nothing very exciting occurred.
By this time it seems that the famous old
Indian question was about out of the way.
The reds were nearly all gone. The Comanches
and Kickapoos had proved to be the
most troublesome, the former claiming the
country as their own, while the latter proclaimed
that they were at war only with
Texas, and not with the United States. In
1870 there were only 500 Tonkawas and
Lipans, and a few years later Texas was relieved
from the hostile incursions of the
Kickapoos, who were removed to a reservation
in the Indian Territory, and since that
time all hostile Indians have been subdued.
By 1882 the remnant of harmless natives
within the borders of the State have been reduced
to 108 souls, and these were located
-in the vicinity of Fort Griffin, in Shackelford
county. They had no reservation, and were
dependent to a great extent upon the whims
of their white neighbors. They had no live
stock, and lived in brush houses and tepees.
They had all been friendly to the whites and
were well contented. An insufficient appropriation
for their support was annually made
by the GovernIent, and the citizens of Texas
assisted them from time to time.
A little further on will be given a list of
all the governors of Texas to date. As this
work goes to press J. S. Hogg is re-elected
governor, after an exciting contest occasioned
by his antagonism to certain classes of. monopolistic
"Under the terms of the annexation treaty
of 1845 Texas retained possession of all
vacant and unappropriated lands within her
boundaries; but from that time to the present
the boundary has not been definitely settled.
A dispute has occurred, arising out of
the old treaty with Spain of February 22,
1819, in which the Red river is made the
boundary between the 94th and 100th degree
west longitude from Greenwich. At the date
when this treaty was made but little information
had been obtained respecting the
region extending along the upper portion of
Red river, nor was it known that the river
was divided into two branches- now called
the north and west forks-between the 99th
and 100th meridians. As late as 1848 all
maps described Red river as a continuous
stream, the north fork not being laid down
upon them. By an exploration, however,
made in 1852, by Captains Marcy and McClellan,
under the direction of the War Department,
it was discovered that there were
two main branches to the river proper; but,
probably owing to the inaccuracy of their
Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed September 21, 2014.