The Pecos river rises in New Mexico, on
the &st slope of the Rocky mountains, flows
through Texas in a southeasterly direction to
a point near Painted Cave Spring, in Crockett
county, where it empties into the Rio Grande.
It drains an area of about 6,000 square miles.
The Neches river has its source in Van
Zandt county and runs in a southeasterly direction
parallel with the Trinity river, et-ptying
into Sabine lake on the Gulf of Mexico.
The Angelina river, which rises in Rusk
county, forms its principal tributary, and, together
with the Neches, drains a large scope
of country between the Trinity and Sabine
The Sulphur Fork runs nearly parallel with
Red river in an easterly direction, passing
out of the State at Sulphur Station and emptying
into the Red river at Demnpsy, Louisiana.
It drains a large part of the northeastern
counties of the State.
On Caney creek there was originally an
immense cane-brake one to three miles wide
and seventy miles long. .It was on both sides
of the creek, extending from near its source
to within twelve miles of its mouth, and
scarcely a tree was to be found within that
ocean of cane. It was called the Great Prairie
Canebrake, and the stream originally
There are many unequivocal evidences that
this creek was once a branch of the Colorado,
constituting another mouth for that stream.
The bed of the creek is of equal depth and
width with the river, and the appearance of
the banks, the nature of the adjacent soil,
etc., are the same in both. A strongly confirmatory
evidence is the abrupt termination
of the deep, wide bed of the Caney within
less than 200 yards of the river, in an alluvial
bottom nearly ten miles in width. Thus
was an island formed with a coast line of
twenty-five miles. It is now called Bay prairie.
There are a large number of small inland
lakes scattered throughout the State. Sabine
lake, lying between Texas and Louisiana, is
the largest of these and is about eighteen
miles long by nine broad. It is fed by the
Neches and Sabine rivers and discharges into
the Gulf of Mexico.
All of the principal rivers of the State flow
in a southeasterly direction and empty into
the Gulf of Mexico, except the Red river,
which flows east into the Mississippi river.
As a general rule the streams east of the
Brazos river are sluggish and muddy; those
on the west side clear and swift running.
Many of the streams in western and northern
Texas contain pure, clear water suitable
for domestic purposes, and abounding in fine
fish. Some of the streams, however, are deceptive.
The water is inviting to the eye,
but is strongly impregnated with minerals
and brackish to the taste.
Tlhe streams in eastern Texas also contain
large numbers of fish of the varieties coin11111mo
to sluggish waters. Some of the smaller
streams in that section, however, are fed from
the springs and lakes of pure, clear water
found among the isand hills.
The bays along and near the Gulf coast
are: Trinity, Lavaca, Matagorda, San Antonio,
Espiritu Ssnto, Copano, Aransas, Nueces,
Corpub Christi, Alazan, and Lagirna del
The soil of Texas and its products, timber
growth, mineral resources, etc., are treated
on subsequent pages.
The figures in the following table denote
the elevation above sea level, in feet, of points
Indianola ........... ............. 26
MISTORY P EXS
Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed May 28, 2015.