History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families

tIISTORY OF TEXAS. 155

Tomnas coal vein (that which is worked above
Laredo), and Mr. Owen states that the sandstone
occurs at nearly every locality where
its stratigraphical position was exposed. The
connection of this asphaltic material and the
coal seam mentioned over an area exceeding
1,000 square miles opens one of the most
profitable fields of fuel industry in Texas.
Analyses of these asphaltum sands give an
average of 14 per cent. asphaltum. Beds of
similar sands are known in Jack, Montague,
Martin and other counties. Analyses gave
the following percentages of bitumen: Montague
county, 8.90 to 10.20; Martin county,
10.72. The asphaltic limestone found in
Uvalde county, specimens of which are in
the State museum, is richer in asphaltum
than any of the sandstones, the average of
three analyses giving 20.35 per cent. of bitumen.
This gives it the same composition as
the best grade of asphaltic limestone gotten
in the Val-de-Travers, Switzerland, of which
the famous asphalt streets of Paris are made.
It is a natural mixture of asphaltum and
limestone in the best proportion for good
road making.
Oil is often an accompanying material
when the tar springs and deposits of bitumen
are found in the timber belt and Eagle Ford
beds. Thus, in the counties of Sabine, Shelby,
Nacogdoches, San Augustine, Anderson,
Grimes, Travis, Bexar and others, oil in
small quantity has been found. Most often,
it is true, the quantity has been too small to
be of much economic importance, but in
Nacogdoches county one of the fields has had
considerable development and the results are
satisfactory. Besides these deposits there
are others in the Carboniferous region, where
small quantities of oil are secured in wells and
springs which appear to have a larger quantity
of the higher oils connected with them.

The only places at which oil is at present
produced are Nacogdoches and San Antonio.
In the vicinity of Chireno, Nacogdoches
county, a number of oil wells have been
bored, many of which became producers. A
pipe line was run connecting the wells with
the railroad at Nacogdoches, and shipments
of oil have been made from time to time.
This locality produces only a lubricating oil,
but it has the property (through absence of
paraffine) of withstanding very severe cold,
and is therefore of high market value for
railroad use where such oils are needed.
Mr. George Dulnig, when boring on his
place for water, at a depth of 300 feet struck
petroleum, and subsequently, in another
boring at some distance from the first, came
upon it at 270 feet. The flow is only about
twenty gallons a day, but is continuous and
regular. The oil is a superior article for
lubricating purposes.
Gas, another economic product accompanying
these beds of bitumen and oil, has
long been known in Shelby, Sabine and
adjoining connties, and it was found in wellboring
in Washington county and elsewhere
many years ago. Within the last few years
fresh borings have been made in the vicinity
of Greenvine, in Washington county, and
the flow of gas found to be of considerable
amount. It has been found near San Antonio
at depths of from 400 to 800 feet,
and also at Gordon and other places in
the Carboniferous area. No attempt has yet
been made to bring it into use, or even to
fully test thle character or extent of the fields
thus far determined.
FERTILIZERS.
Under this heading might be included
everything that can be applied to a soil for
its amelioration or the increase of its fertility.

155

ZISOR OPTEXAS.

Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed September 20, 2014.