History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families

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158 HISTORY o~~~~ 7'EXAS. ~

Among the rocks of the Cretaceous series
'are many deposits which are especially adapted
for use in this way. Localities are numerous
in the divisions known as the Austin chalk
and the Washita limestone which will afford
a soft material well suited for the purpose.
It often happens that in the greensand
beds themselves there are large deposits of
fossil shells still in their original form as
carbonate of lime. Where these occur the
marl is of great value, as it contains that
which will render it most valuable on such
sandy lands as need it.
Clays.-Some of the clays of east Texas
will prove of value as fertilizers on account
of the large amount of potash they contain
-as high as five and six per cent. in certain
cases. While it is true that much of the
potash is in chemical combination with silica,
and therefore soluble only with difficulty, if
composted with quicklime this substance
will be rendered more soluble and prepared
for plant food.
FICTILE MATERIALS.
Texas has not yet begun to take that place
among the manufacturers of pottery and
glassware which the character, quality and
extent of the materials found within her borders
render possible. For pottery-making
there exist clays adapted to every grade, front
common jug ware and tiling through yellow,
Rockingham, C. C., white granite or ironstone
china, to china or porcelain of ti e
finest quality. Glass sands are also found of
a high degree of purity, and many other
materials of use or necessity in the manufacture
of these various glades of goods are
found here.
While the subject of clays has n/t yet received
the attention that it is proposed to

give it, numerous specimens have been
secured and analyzed, with the result of
proving the facts as stated above.
Among the clays of the division known as
coast clays are some that will answer for the
coarser stoneware, such as jugs, flower pots,
drain tile, etc., and others which from their
refractory character are well adapted for the
manufacture of charcoal furnaces, and possibly
of sewer pipe.
The coast region contains beds of light
colored clays, many of which are pure white.
These beds of clay not only underlie and
overlie the middle beds of Fayette sands,
but are also found interbedded with that ,
series. The excellent qualities of these clays
were first stated by Dr. W. P. Riddell, of the
first geological survey of Texas under Dr.
Shumard. His specimens were obtained from
the Yegna, in Washington county, and in the
vicinity of Hempstead. Since that time many
analyses have been made of clays of various
portions of these beds, and while some of them
are too high in alkalies or fusible constituents,
others are well suited to the manufacture
of all grades of earthen ware below that
of porcelain, or French china as it is called.
Clays of this character have been secured in
various localities from Angelina to and below
Fayette county. There are beds in the Fayette
sands that will be of value in glassmaking.
Some of the beds are composed of
clear angular quartz grains without tinge of
iron, having only an occasional grain of
rounded red or black quartz.
In the timber-belt beds there are other
clays and sands well suited to the manufacture
of earthenware and glass. Most of the
beds of pottery clays of this division examined
so far in eastern Texas are, however,
only suited for the coarser grades of earthen

158

MIISTORY~ OF TEXAIYS.

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Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed September 21, 2014.