rocks, large deposits of very valuable ores, these masses, either loose in a sandy-clay
including magnetite, red hematite, and vari- matrix or solidified in a bed by a ferruginous
ous hydrated ores. Finally, in trans-Pecos cement. The ore lies horizontally at or near
Texas iron ores of the hematite and magnetic the tops of the hills, in the same manner as
types are found in veins of considerable the brown laminated ores to the south of the
thickness. Sabine river. The beds vary in thickness
Thus it will be seen that the distribution from less than one foot to over ten feet, the
of the ores is general, extending entirely thicker ones being often interbeddtd with
across the State from east to west. thin seams of sand. The ore-bearing beds
The ores of east Texas all belong to the are immediately overlaid by sandy or sandyclass
of limonites, or brown hematites. They clayey strata.
have been divided according to their physical Conglomerate ores consist of a conglomerstructure,
due to the manner of their forma- ate of brown ferruginous pebbles one-quarter
tion, into four general classes,--laminated to two inches in diameter and cemented in a
ores, geode or nodular ores, conglomerate sandy matrix. Sometimes a few siliceous
ores, and carbonate ores. pebbles are also found. The beds vary from
The l,,,,;,ttel w',. are brown to black in one to twenty feet thick, and are generally
color and vary in structure from a massive local deposits along the banks and bluffs and
to a hiliglv laminated variety in which tlIe sometimes in the beds of almost all the creeks
lamimn, vary from one-sixteenth to one-quarter and streams in the iron-ore region just deof
an inch in thickness, frequently separated scribed. Sometimes they cap the lower hills.
by hollow spaces, and sometimes containing They are generally of low grade, but could
thin reams of gray clay. The average thick- be concentrated by crushling and washing out
Dne;s of the ore bed is from one to three feet, the sandy matrix. They usually contain more
altlhonlgh it may exceed this in places. This or less ferruginous sandstone in lenticular
class of ores is most extensively developed deposits, and are Imuch cross-bedded.
south of the Sabine river. The ore bed is The investigations of the survey in east
generally underlaid by a stratum of green- Texas show an aggregate iron-bearing area
sand marl from ten to thirty feet in thick- of a thousand square miles. This is not all
ness, and overlaid by from one to sixty feet a solid bed of commercial ore, but the area
of sands and sandstones. within which commercial ores are known to
The nodular, or geo(de ores, which are exist. If even one-fourth be taken as probest
developed north of the Sabine river, ductive iron land, and the bed be estimated
usually occur as nodu tiles or geodes, or as sandy- at two feet in thickness, both very safe esticlay
strata. This ore generally occurs in. mates, we have a total outputof 1,500,000,000
nodules or geodes, or as honey-combed, tons of iron ore. The quality of the ores
botryoidal, stalactitic and mammillary masses. varies from that adapted to the manufacture
It is rusty brown, yellow, dull red, or even of steel, or " Bessemer ores, " to that of low
black color, and has a glossy, dull, or earthy grade.
lustre. The most characteristic feature of The ochres of the Cretaceous are found in
the ore is the nodular or geode form i/i which Uvalde and Val Verde counties, and probait
occurs. Some of the beds are made up of bly elsewhere. From analyses they appear to
RISTORY OF TXAS.
Lewis Publishing Company, publisher. History of Texas, together with a biographical history of Milam, Williamson, Bastrop, Travis, Lee and Burleson counties : containing a concise history of the state, with portraits and biographies of prominent citizens of the above named counties, and personal histories of many of the early settlers and leading families. Chicago. The Portal to Texas History. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth29785/. Accessed December 29, 2014.